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REVIEWS !f3 patriot-moralist, then surely at many points in this work the first two attributes have overwhelmed the third, and the Philistine is glorified. "The men," we are told at one point, "are more important than what they suppose." But it is what men suppose that makes them important; whatever else we know about them is gossip, wonderful gossip perhaps, but still gossip, and history is more than that. Perhaps in the second volume of this study, which is to deal with the achievements of the age in action and the life of the mind, this imbalance of judgment may be corrected. Even here, amidst admiration of the sheer gross energy of the Elizabethans, there are many glimpses of an ideal more precise and subtle, an achievement of which profit was but the material cause. Expelled by the centrifugal forces of the Reformation and the voyages of discovery from their snug corporate existence as an outer province of medieval Christendom, Tudor Englishmen explored their land, their language, and themselves in a single passion of self-realization. On the way they uncovered all their vices, behaved with insufferable panache, but in the end found the ultimate tragedy of all human experience, and faced it unafraid. One finds their epigraph in the calm words of Ascham, which are quoted on the last page of this book: "Increase hath a time, and decay likewise , but all perfect ripeness remaineth but a moment: as is plainly seen in fruits, plums and cherries; but more sensibly in flowers, as roses and such like, and yet as truly in all great matters." THE THOUGHT OF C. S. PEIRCE' HENRY S. LEONARD This balanced, temperate, and rounded exposition of the work done by C. S. Peirce in all those fields of philosophy on which he wrote will be of value both to students as yet unacquainted with Peirce and to those scholars who are already trying to evaluate the contributions of this extraordinary intellectual figure. It was not, however, the intention of Professor Goudge merely to offer a survey of Peirce's philosophical positions. The book under review propounds and aims to substantiate a general interpretative hypothesis to the effect " (a) that Peirce's ideas fall naturally into two broad groups whose opposite character is a reflection of a deep conflict in his thinking; and (b) that the conflict can best be understood in terms of what I shall call his 'naturalism' and his 'transcendentalism'" (p. 4). *The Thought 0/ C. S. Peirce. By THOMAS A. GoUDGE. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1950. Pp. xii, 360. $5.00. 94 THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO QUARTERLY The evidence offered to support this hypothesis is of two sorts. Evidence of the first sort consists of a careful and well-documented exposition of Peirce's ideas, divided into his "naturalistic" and his "transcendental" ideas. This survey provides the major bulk of the book and constitutes its primary contribution. The adequacy of the survey as evidence for the hypothesis is conditional on the truth of three points which wiII be considered shortly: (1) that the expositions are faithful to the original intent of Peirce; (2) that the ideas expounded in the two parts are respectively naturalistic and transcendental , as claimed; and (3) that these naturalistic and transcendental doctrines do in fact conflict. Evidence of the second sort consists in a review, in the concluding chapter of the book, of Peirce's career, designed to show that both inheritance and environment conspired to make such a conflict of tendencies in Peirce's thought antecedently probable. The argument in this chapter is surely persuasive. Let us return to the three propositions necessary to the adequacy of the evidence of the first sort. (1) In this reviewer's opinion, the report and exposition of Peirce's views is thoroughly reliable and generally lucid. It is in fact this feature of the work that make it an appropriate introduction to Peirce. At the same time, since the author is using this exposition to substantiate a hypothesis concerning the general character of Peirce's ideas, he is deprived of the right to exercise any principle of selectivity by reference to which he could otherwise suppress or...


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