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214 THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO .QUARTERLY Pseudo-Areopagite and John the Scot describe ... as the 'anagogical approach' (... 'the upward-leading method'); and this is what Suger professed as a theologian, proclaimed as a poet, and practised as a patron of the arts and as an arranger of liturgical spectacles/' ' It is with somewhat of a relief that we find that not all the .,,S.ugerquestions ,. can be an.swered: Di_ d Suger realize that his concentration of artists "from all parts of the kingdom,. inaugurated that great selective synthesis of all French regional styles in the hitherto relatively barren Isle-de-France which we call Gothic? Did he suspect that the .rose in the west fa~ade-:-so far as we know the first appearance of this motif in this place--was one of the great innovations in architectural history. .. ? -Did he know, or sense, that his unreflecting enthusiasm for the Pseudo-Areopagite's and John the Scot's light met;aphysics placed him in the van of an intellectual movement that was to result in the proto-scientific theories of Robert Grosseteste and Roger Bacon, on the one hand, and, in a Christian Platonism ranging from William of Auvergne, Henry cif Ghent and Ulric of Strassburg to Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola, on the other? SHORTER NOTICE·Saints_ and Strangers. By GEORGE F. WILLISON. New York: Reyna! and Hitchcock [Toronto: McClelland and Stewart]. 1945. Pp. vii, -513. ($4.75) The Completion of Independence, 1790-1830. By JoHN ALLEN . KRouT· and DIXON RYAN Fox. Vol. V of the Histo·ry of American Life, ed. A; M. -Schlesinger and D. R. Fox. · New York: Macmillan Co. [Toronto: MacmiHan Co. ~f Canada]. 1944. Pp. xxiii, 487. ($4.00) THESE two volumes of American history· rather more in common than the general subject-matter . They are both period-studies, though of unequal social areas. They are both accounts of national beginnings, the first in the colony at Plymouth, the second (after the Revolution). in the young republic whose citizens, like their. Puritan ancestors of a cet~tury and a half earlier, were often elated with the sense of sharing in .a great -political adventure which the world would admire and Heaven approve. Both books are designed to be popular, in no disparaging sense of the word: they are not writ~en primarily for the specialist in American history, nor, at the other extreme, for the great mass of people who get most of their knowledge of times past from historical fiction and the movies} but for the not inconsiderable number between who will exert ti1emselves to learn} but are grateful for books in ·which historical and social generalization is enlivened by anecdote and illustration.· Saints and Strangers is a book on two related subjects: first and most important, the history of the Plymouth settlement in the seventeenth century, and second, the growth of a national mythology concerning the _\ REVIEWS 215 Pilgrims from its modest beginnings about the time of the Revolution down to our own day. The main part of the ·book tells of the genesis of the Pilgrim society among the Brownists of the East Midlands toward the end of Elizabeth's reign, ~elates the exodus first to }lolland and then to the promised land o"f America, and describes the varying fortunes of a community that was never very prosperous or secure down to the .time of its annexation by the more vigorous, wealthy, and aggressive Puritan colony of Massachusetts in 1692. .Mr. vVillison is to be congratulated on the skill he has shown in drawing on the scores qf surviving records and memoirs to produce a unified and lively narrative. The emphasis fa]Js rather more on. personalities and events than on ideas. Puritan thought is certainly not ignored, but is given incidental and unsystematic treatment. The reader will probably remember best certain actions and persons: the lucky discovery of the Indian-cache on Corn Hill; the delightfully comic episode of the visit to Massasoit by Winslow and· Hopkins.; the fearful conclusion of King Philip's War; William Bradford, the wise governor and eloquent historian; the cheeky and irrepressible Isaac Allerton, "the first Yankee trader"; the...


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