In this article I examine the liaisons between the violence by the far right paramilitary groups, the existing anti-Roma feelings or political discourse, and the various European governments’ actions in combating these phenomena. I argue that strongly-held beliefs of Roma inferiority not tackled through anti-bias education and enforcement of laws, but instead boosted by outspoken racists have encouraged the present extremist views and actions among ordinary citizens. In particular, I examine how the states have neglected their duty to properly address and sanction both legally and morally, such acts of violence. Additionally, I scrutinize the effectiveness of some concrete anti-discrimination measures and discuss a range of other possible strategies at the local, national, or European level.


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pp. 325-348
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
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