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A new technology, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), can identify fetal sex early in pregnancy, five weeks after conception, with a high degree of accuracy through analysis of maternal blood plasma. This article considers the possibility that NIPT will encourage greater sex selection in developed countries and discusses the implications. Sex selection raises serious social and ethical issues unless it is done for medical reasons. The article also assesses options to discourage sex-selective abortions, including the effectiveness of potential legal measures.