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In the fall of 1939, Jews across western Poland faced a momentous dilemma: whether to stay in their homes under Nazi occupation or to flee to the area controlled by the Soviets. The question was particularly acute for residents of Hrubieszów, mere kilometers from the new border at the Bug River. Testimonies and memoirs of Hrubieszower Jews illuminate the factors individuals and families weighed in making their decisions. They also highlight the importance of Jewish agency and choice during the Holocaust.