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43 Victorian Things: Schaffer Works Cited Ames, Kenneth L. Death in the Dining Room and OtherTales of Victorian Culture. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1992. Browning, Elizabeth Barrett. Aurora Leigh. Ed. Margaret Reynolds. Rev. ed. 1859. NewYork: Norton, 1996. Catalogue of the Great Exhibition. London: Spicer Brothers, 1851.Vol 2: iii, nos. 144, 561. Chevreul, Michel. The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colours.Trans. Charles Martel. 3rd ed. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1859. Davidoff, Leonore, and Catherine Hall.“The Hidden Investment:Women and the Enterprise.” Women’s Work:The English Experience 1650-1914. Ed. Pamela Sharpe. London: Arnold, 1998. 239–94. Englishwoman’s Domestic MagazineVol 1, 3rd Series (August 1865): 255; (March 1869): 124–26. Freedgood, Elaine. The Ideas inThings: Fugitive Meaning in the Victorian Novel. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2006. G.A.“Decorative Decorations.” Cornhill Magazine 42 (1880): 599. Hay, David Ramsay. The Laws of Harmonious Colouring,Adapted to Interior Decorations,Manufactures,and Other Useful Purposes. 3rd ed. Edinburgh:W. & R. Chambers, 1836. Lady’s Album of Fancy Work. London: Grant & Griffith, 1850. Lambert, Miss. The Handbook of Needlework. London: John Murray, 1842. Logan,Thad. The Victorian Parlour. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. Morris, Barbara. Victorian Embroidery. London: Herbert Jenkins, 1962. Stone, Elizabeth. The Art of Needle-Work From the Earliest Ages. London: Henry Colburn, 1840. • Cemetery J u lie Rug g • The Victorian city, which massed people on a hitherto unimaginable scale, contained elements that were intended to promote classical civility in its residents. Civic building was pedagogic as well as functional, and aimed to nurture—in town halls, market places, function rooms, and libraries— ordered and educated citizens.The demarcation of space could both promote and exclude, and new building to celebrate civic ethos was accompanied by the containment of social ills in prisons and workhouses.The cemetery constituted a distinctive addition to theVictorian city, blending the two principles of civility and containment in a new landscape form. It is not new to consider theVictorian cemetery as a material object. Much of the literature relating to cemeteries lies in the field of architectural and landscape history.This stream of research has traced the development of particular aesthetics and contributed to an understanding of the ideals underpinning new cemetery development. However, research into the history of an object should travel beyond its design and construction and consider its meaning and usage.The cemetery is a Victorian thing of remarkable complexity, with victorian review • Volume 34 Number 1 44 shifting purposes and connotations that carry it far beyond its basic function as a repository for the dead.Through the course of the nineteenth century, the cemetery as an object changed from an innately desirable civic adornment denoting sensitivity to a symbol of unfettered urban sprawl. Both these meanings framed and reflected change in funerary culture. It is perhaps appropriate to begin by outlining the reason why theVictorian cemetery was such a departure as a “thing.” In Britain, cemeteries were evident before theVictorian period. In the eighteenth century, isolated examples included the site on Edinburgh’s Calton Hill. However, a substantial cultural shift in favour of cemeteries emerged from the 1820s and found its full flourishing in the two middle quarters of the century. During this time the United Kingdom saw the laying out of hundreds of cemeteries, the majority still in use. The cemetery constituted the first conscious attempt to produce and design a landscape suitable for the interment of all the dead of the community, both rich and poor. For centuries past, space for interment in Britain had been largely dominated by churchyards owned and operated by the Established Church. Dissenting communities shadowed this provision, by having interment in the vaults or precincts of chapels or—in some cases—opening small separate burial grounds. The cemetery was a new departure. From the 1820s, rapidly growing and politically confident Dissenting communities in the provinces began to view Church control of burial space as an onerous imposition. Dissenting communities in Manchester, Liverpool, and Norwich began to explore the opportunities offered by the application of the principles of joint-stock finance to the need for burial space that was wholly independent of the Established Church.The sale of shares To the Chairman and...


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