• restricted access “Быть русским по духу и ев-ропейцем по образованию”: Уни-верситеты Российской империи в образовательном пространстве Центральной и Восточной Евро-пы XVIII – начала XX в по А. Ю. Андреев (review)

  • Kitty Lam
  • Ab Imperio
  • Ab Imperio
  • 2/2011
  • pp. 378-382
  • 10.1353/imp.2011.0093
  • Review
  • View Citation
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378 Рецензии/Reviews Kitty LAM “Быть русским по духу и ев- ропейцем по образованию”: Уни- верситеты Российской империи в образовательном пространстве Центральной и Восточной Евро- пы XVIII – начала XX в. / Сост. А. Ю. Андреев. Москва: “РОС- СПЭН”, 2009. 336 с. (=Россия и Европа. Век за веком). ISBN: 978-5-8243-1167-9. When Peter the Great sought to transform Russia into a powerful, modernized empire, ideas and norms that stemmed from the Enlightenment offered brilliant examples for his endeavors. European modes for learning became a cornerstone on which to develop this process. If the governing elite could manage to incorporate what they saw as the most useful and innovating aspects of West European scholarship into the Russian context, they could help enhance Russia’s prestige as a dynastic realm that could rival any of its European counterparts. The establishment of a university system in the Russian Empire is therefore worthy of scholars’ consideration because it offers a window through which to examine how transfer of knowledge intersected political, social, and cultural developments in Russia. The collection of articles in this volume, written by Russian and German researchers, examines European influences on the development of Russian universities and institutions of higher education from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. This volume is organized around several related themes. The first divulges the particular process by which Russia adopted the concept of the university from Western Europe and adapted it to its own setting from the eighteenth to the twentieth century . A. Iu. Andreev emphasizes the significance of the German university as an ideal prototype. He elaborates on the tensions that resulted from discussions among members of the Ministry of Education on the merits of the utilitarian and classical university models. In doing so, he convincingly reveals the evolving and at times tenuous relationship between scholarly endeavors and forms of imperial rule, particularly during the era of the Great Reforms, when the role of the university increasingly became a part of the public conversation. G. I. Smagina ’s discussion of German-trained historian Gerhard Friedrich Miller’s attempts to regulate the academic university offers a specific case study that helps readers appreciate Andreev’s long overview of the Russian university system. Smagina argues that although Miller’s initial attempts to implement specific structures for university administration and instruction were not entirely 379 Ab Imperio, 2/2011 foundation of a university system in the Russian Empire, but this did not mean that prior to the seventeenth century, the notion of higher education was culturally alien to Russia. L. Iu. Posokhova identifies educational traditions, particularly in the ecclesiastical sphere in the Ukrainian lands in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as a significant area where the general Europeanstyle transformation of higher learning began. The author examines how Catholic universities in Poland influenced the development of Orthodox ecclesiastical colleges in Ukrainian territory. Posokhova’s article underscores the vast array of influences including that of religious institutions that affected the foundation of scholarly establishments across a vast, diverse empire. This article provides the added dimension of religious institutions as another source of competition for influence over science and education. E.A. Vishlenkova portrays Kazan University as an example of a Russian university caught between European and local traditions. S. I. Posokhov’s work on the historiography of Kharkov University in memoirs and journalism , and A. E. Ivanov’s article on the competing Polish-Catholic and German-Protestant models that influenced the development of Vilna University, add to the dialogue on the way local conditions shaped university traditions. successful, they established the roots for future practices in the Russian university. Jan Kusber further develops the first theme by examining how German scholars viewed the Russian university, particularly in the aftermath of widespread social and political revolutions across Europe in 1848–1849. He suggests that because it was only at this point that German universities started to be considered public institutions, German scholars paid particular attention to the Russian professoriate’s dependency on the state, and the relative lack of political freedom in Russian science at this time. What emerges from the discussions in these articles is the notion that academic pursuits were strongly tied to imperial authority, and the growing influence of the universities did not always correspond to the autocracy’s aims. The question that remains to be addressed is how the Russian educated elite responded to West European universities’ relationship to their respective governments when...


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