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Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis’ opera Lysistrata, based on Aristophanes’ comedy, premiered in Athens in April 2002. Theodorakis, who has shrewdly combined politics and art throughout his career, created both the libretto and the score for this politically charged, anti-war opera. The composer claims that Lysistrata is his last opera, and as such, I argue that it may be read as a summa of Theodorakis’ joint artistic and political career. This paper analyzes referential and political content in the score, in the libretto, and in Giorgos Michailidis’ premiere production, and also considers how external political circumstances in early 2002 lent further timeliness and relevance to the opera’s plea for peace.