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BOOK REVIEWS 3 6 3 ality the very techniques Pratt used to create it. It must be noted, however, that among them only Luther Standing Bear was educated at Carlisle. Importantly, Pfister tackles one of the most difficult questions associated with Pratt and his educational project: the loyalty he engendered in his Native students and associates. He suggests that the bond may have grown from a common enmity with the Indian Bureau. Mabel Dodge Luhan, already a convert to Freudian analysis when she moved to Taos in 1917, promoted Pueblo life as the ultimate antidote to the neurosis of contemporary life. The notables Luhan lured to New Mexico to share her discovery included D. H. Lawrence, who published two books on psychoanalysis in the early 1920s, and Collier, an immigrant activist who had promoted cultural pluralism as the fastest route to assimilation. Pfister glosses over the import of Collier’s subsequent successes in reshaping federal Indian policy, offering instead, through Lawrence, a critique of Luhan’s and Collier’s saviorist motives, as well as Collier’s paternalistic management style. For Pfister, Laughing Boy (1986) and The Surrounded (1978) stand as the ultimate modemist refutation of the Indian as ideological therapy for the white psyche. The Pastures of Beyond: An Old Cotvboy Looks Back at the Old West. By Dayton O. Hyde. New York: Arcade Publishing, 2005. 254 pages, $25.00. Reviewed by Stephen Cook California State University, Sacramento Dayton O. Hyde is probably best known as the founder and director of the Black Hills Wild Horse Sanctuary. I first met Hyde in 1993 when my wife was a volunteer at the sanctuary for the summer. I stayed behind in Sacramento, miserable and sulking, to teach remedial English, but I finally made it out to South Dakota and was stunned by the physical beauty of Hyde’s preserve— ten thousand acres of canyons, grasslands, and timber, bisected by the Cheyenne River. Visible from high bluffs overlooking the river are 120-year-old tipi rings dug by the Lakota to drain rainwater, and at night, when all artificial lights are out, the Milky Way seems to hang only inches overhead. The sanctuary is timeless, even primitive, so un-modem that a mystified ranch hand, upon hearing a car alarm go off, said, “What in hell is that?” Out of this Old West setting comes Hyde’s fifteenth book, The Pastures of Beyond, an autobiography possessing an elegiac tone, not for the author— a man who recently turned eighty—but more so for what he has witnessed: the passing away of smaller family ranches and the communities, skills, and people they sustained. While many academics and environmentalists pine for the demise of ranching, Hyde argues in this book and in Don Coyote (1986) that a properly managed ranch preserves open space and habitat without damaging the land or riparian areas. Small- and medium-sized ranches, once sold, are W e s t e r n A m e r i c a n L i t e r a t u r e F a l l 2 0 0 6 likely to become subdivisions and golf courses. However, Hyde defends ranch­ ing not through polemics but with a gentle advocacy in the form of an oral history of Yamsi, his family’s ranch in eastern Oregon, turning Yamsi into an objective corellative. Hyde concedes that because ranching is labor intensive and risky, both physically and financially, some ranchers want to sell out to developers. Further, finding skilled help willing to work for room, board, and poverty-level wages is difficult, a situation arising from a demographic shift that occurred after World War II. Hyde points out that as soldiers and sailors from rural areas got a taste of the world and saw the wages available in blue-collar jobs, small towns began to bleed young men, joining women who had already made the exodus to the factories of urban centers during the war. The shrinking rural population and the loss of labor led to mechanization and the diminishment of a collective set of hands-on skills necessary for ranch life. For example, Hyde uses some of his most passionate words to describe...


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pp. 363-364
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