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C o n t r ib u t o r s A u t h o r s Susan Armitage teaches history at Washington State University. She is the coeditor (with Betsy Jameson) of The Women’s West (1987) and Writing the Range: Race, Class, and Culture in the Women’s West (1997) and the author of a number of articles on western women’s history. Patrick K. Dooley has published extensively in the general area of philosophy and American culture. He is particularly interested in ethical issues. His most recent book, A Community of Inquiry: Conversations between Classical American Phibsophy and American Literature is forthcoming (summer 2006). He is also working on a book on philosophical themes in the works of John Steinbeck. He is the bibliographer for Stephen Crane Studies, and for the past fifteen years, he has been editor of the Society for the Advancement of American Phibsophy Newsletter, Cathryn Halverson is an associate professor of English and American literature at Kobe City University of Foreign Studies in Kobe, Japan. She published her first book in 2004, Maverick Autobiographies: Women Writers and the American West, and is currently completing a project provisionally titled “Playing House in the American West: Western Women’s Literary Autobiography, 1840-1950.” Elizabeth J. Wright is an assistant professor of English at the Pennsylvania State University, Hazleton. A r t is t s Victor Arnautoff (1896-1979) followed the social protest style of Diego Rivera and has been heralded as one of the most influential San Francisco muralists of the 1930s. He supervised the mural project at Coit Tower and painted City Life (see p. 58) as part of the project. His murals are bold depic­ tions of social injustice. After thirty years in the United States, he returned to Russia, where he died. Dorr Bothwell (1902-2000) was one of the West Coast’s most important and prolific artists. Bom in the Bay Area, she began studying at the California School of Fine Arts in San Francisco when she was nineteen. Screenprinting was her chosen graphic technique, and her art was widely influenced by her parents’ Amish and Christian Science beliefs as well as her extensive travels. Bothwell also cowrote the book Notan; notan is a Japanese word meaning “dark/light.” In this work, she sought to incorporate the idea that opposites complement each other, including the interaction of positive and negative spaces in art. The book is still widely used in art education. 9 2 W e s t e r n A m e r ic a n L it e r a t u r e S p r in g 2 0 0 6 Francisco Delgado describes his artwork as Fronterizo social narrative with hints of liberal politics. His interest lies in portraying the life and experience of border dwellers, exposing problems within his community. It is not meant to be judgmental or moral in any form. It highlights a clash between three cultures—Mexican, Chicano, and American mainstream—that collide to form something unique. Delgado’s images are targeted for a specific audience but have a universal appeal. John Langley Howard (b. 1902) studied under Kenneth Hayes Miller, a neo­ classical social realist figure painter, in New York, where he adopted Miller’s technique of painting working-class males with coarse physiques and rough facial features. During the Great Depression, he saw the need for social change in America. While living in Monterey, California, he started depicting the dis­ parity between the wealthy and blue-collar workers. The Anchor Block (see p. 51) illustrates a confrontation between a ship worker and a person on the dock. Graciela Iturbide (b. 1942) was born in Mexico City and currently lives in Coyoacán, Mexico. Her work has been exhibited throughout the world, and she has been awarded prizes in France, Chile, Japan, and Germany. For her portfolio El empleo o su carencia, she received a prize from the UN-International Labor Organization in 1986; in 1990, she was invited by Doctors without Borders to photograph in Madagascar. In 1996 and 1997-98, a major retrospective of her work, “Graciela Iturbide: Images of the Spirit,” was exhibited in Monterrey, Mexico...


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