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Introduction

The story of the Filipino and American defenders of the Philippine Islands during World War II is a familiar one. A somewhat hastily gathered force of various units from the United States along with their Filipino counterparts faced overwhelming Japanese military superiority beginning in early December 1941. Holding out for months against a fierce, determined, and powerful enemy, all the while enduring a disheartening lack of supplies, food, and reinforcements, the American and Filipino forces finally relented to the military realities and surrendered the Philippines in April 1942 and finally the island fortress of Corregidor the following month. This humiliating defeat at the hands of an enemy most Americans considered inferior set the stage for the grinding war in the Pacific, a war that would only come to an end as it ushered in the nuclear age. [End Page 293]

Another part of this story has become synonymous with the brutality and blatant disregard of human life that came to characterize the Pacific War: the Bataan Death March. In the annals of modern warfare, perhaps no other single event has come to represent the inhumanity that one army inflicted upon its helpless conquered enemy more clearly than the sixty-mile trek from the southern tip of Bataan peninsula to Camp O'Donnell. Over 75,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war (POWs) were forcibly marched along the route, enduring blazing temperatures, a dire lack of food and water, and heinous behavior of Japanese guards, many of whom did not hesitate to beat and even kill prisoners without provocation along the entire forced march. When the march ended, over 650 American and an estimated 11,000 Filipino prisoners were dead. Those who somehow survived the horrors of the Death March then faced a new world of brutality, abuse, and neglect in the Japanese POW camps. Whether in the Philippines, Manchuria, Formosa, or in the Japanese home islands, these camps were uniformly bad: poor food rations, lack of medical care, disease, overwork, physical abuse, and torture were all common hallmarks of the Japanese POW experience, and those who survived this experience considered themselves to be incredibly fortunate.1

A lesser-known part of this story involves sixty-six sons of the commonwealth: the Harrodsburg-based, Thirty-eighth Tank [End Page 294] Company of the Kentucky National Guard. The Harrodsburg Tankers, as they have become known over the years, were part of the doomed Allied force in the Philippines that faced the Japanese in battle and later endured their treatment as prisoners of war. The history of the Harrodsburg Tankers begins in the somewhat sleepy years following World War I. A small and relatively nondescript unit, the Thirty-eighth Tank Company, was made up of young men from the Harrodsburg area. As the Great Depression devastated rural economies and severely affected the financial future of a generation, many of the young Kentuckians chose to join the National Guard as a way to supplement their quite meager income. The National Guard also provided an occasional escape from the often-monotonous daily life in rural Kentucky, as well as a measure of adventure for the young men. It should also be mentioned that the small-town nature of many Guard units meant that many of the young men in the ranks knew each other from childhood and grew up together; it was quite common for brothers to belong to the same unit, and this was certainly the case for the Harrodsburg men.2

Life in the Kentucky Guard was quite typical for the era. Monthly drills at local armories and occasional field-training exercises framed the National Guard experience, and it was during these occasions that the tankers continued to build upon the local ties that would bind them closer during the hellish times of war and captivity. As war clouds loomed on the country's horizon, many National Guard units—including the Thirty-eighth Tank Company—were called into federal service in preparation for a war that most Americans hoped to avoid. Brief training at Fort Knox, Kentucky, and participation in the army's massive field maneuvers in Louisiana during the summer of 1941 [End Page 295] introduced modern warfare to Company D, 192nd Tank Battalion, the new official designation for the Kentucky unit. Along with the name change came an altered identity, as scores of draftees like Claude Likens (and a few regular army enlisted) joined the company. Thus expanded to 128 personnel, many of them Kentuckians, the company performed well enough in Louisiana to be singled out for special praise by a U.S. Army director of the maneuvers, Major General George S. Patton. Within days thereafter, the battalion received orders to deploy to the Philippines to help bolster the defenses of the archipelago against probable Japanese attack.

That assault came on December 8, 1941, as the Japanese unleashed a furious offensive against the ill-equipped and ill-prepared defenders. Japanese superiority on the seas and in the air isolated the Filipino-American force, and set the stage for the inevitable invasion of Luzon. The defenders scrambled to meet Japanese ground forces that swarmed the island later in the month, but the invader's victory was a foregone conclusion. Under the command of U.S. General Douglas MacArthur, the Philippine defenders repeatedly and bravely engaged the Japanese, only to fall back time after time, trading land for time. The Company D men, now part of the newly designated Provisional Tank Group, acquitted themselves remarkably well during this desperate struggle. Whether meeting Japanese landing forces or lying in wait for advancing enemy tank and infantry units, the Kentuckians repeatedly inflicted massive damage on the attackers. As MacArthur's forces continued to fall back toward the Bataan Peninsula, however, the arithmetic of battle proved insurmountable. There were simply not enough men, not enough supplies, not enough food, and not enough medicine available to keep the defenders from succumbing to the Japanese onslaught.

The fall of the Philippines opened a new chapter in the lives of the Company D men. It must have seemed like a prolonged death sentence to find oneself under the cruel authority of the Japanese, who were noted for their brutal treatment of POWs and civilians alike. The uncertainty of their future, mixed with the confusion and frustration of defeat in battle, certainly created an environment of [End Page 296] immense anxiety among the tankers. As the Japanese rounded up and organized the POWs into hundred-man groups, the Kentuckians pondered their fate and the future was not promising. Most of the Japanese were incredibly harsh, constantly shouting words that were incomprehensible to both the Filipino and American prisoners, and beating those unfortunate souls who knew not how to comply with their guards' demands.

Weakened from malnutrition, suffering from tropical illnesses, and dispirited from the humiliating defeat, the Kentucky tankers soon moved out from Bataan along the miserable route to Camp O'Donnell, some sixty miles to the north. It did not matter to them that the Bataan Death March was not a premeditated atrocity, that it was largely a result of poor planning and foresight by the Japanese. What the men on that terrible trek knew was that every tortured step they took under the blazing tropical sun of the Philippines was an unimaginable struggle. They also knew that their captors' behavior often defied description. The sheer brutality exhibited by the guards along this march had to challenge each individual's faith in humanity. Alvin C. Poweleit, a Kentucky physician in the 192nd Battalion, later recalled a scene from the Death March: "The sick, exhausted, and those with dysentery dropped by the wayside. Some were bayoneted, some were shot, others clubbed to death, and others just gave up and died."3

But the utter hell of the Death March was not the end of their miserable journey. Camp O'Donnell and other POW camps that the Japanese operated in the Philippines were ghastly places rife with disease, torture, and death. Dozens of Americans and Filipinos died daily in the confines of these camps, and those who managed to live still continued to suffer. Even those prisoners whom the Japanese shipped to other areas of the Empire fared little better. Moved by sea to various locations, prisoners endured the experience of the "Hell Ships," rusting prison hulks in which hundreds of prisoners spent [End Page 297] weeks crowded in unspeakable conditions, until they were mercifully released for shipment to their next destination: work camps in the Japanese home islands or in Japanese-occupied Asia. The prisoners would continue to labor for their captors until the end of the war.

During World War II, American prisoners of the Japanese died at a rate far in excess of those held by other enemy powers. When the war ended, twenty-nine of the sixty-six Harrodsburg men (43.9 percent) and nineteen of the company's sixty-two other members (39.6 percent) did not return home, a ratio of death even higher than the average of 25 percent typically associated with prisoners of the Japanese. Although one could ask why so many Kentuckians died during this horrible odyssey, it seems more appropriate to understand why thirty-seven of these young Harrodsburg men and forty-three other Company D men survived. Numerous factors account for this, of course, including luck perhaps most prominently, but one must take into account the close-knit social fabric of a Guard unit. Many of these men had known each other their entire lives, and they worked together to make it through the struggle for survival.

Even in prison, Kentuckians sought each other out. In the following journal, litanies of names and home addresses of men who lived and died near the author, record like a census—grouped together—the vital data of both Company D men and other Kentuckians. Clearly, at Yokohama I-D, Cabanatuan, and other infamous prisons that held significant numbers of Company D men, the Kentuckians lived or died together. When a man was ill, hungry, or depressed, he could count on a fellow Kentuckian to help ease his suffering and help him through each day. Moreover, the journal's own secret existence was known to numerous prisoners; various hands wrote some of the name/address lists. Yet the journal's survival, and indeed the survival of its author, prove that not one prisoner told his Japanese captors about this written record. The bonds of two- or three-man "combines," as some prisoners termed these informal, survival units, or larger tribes of POWs with common origins or attitudes, helped these men get through some truly savage hours. Day-by-day [End Page 298] survival would eventually lead some men home.

One of these men was Claude C. Likens from Kosmosdale, Kentucky, near Louisville. The oldest of four children, Likens was born on May 15, 1917, and his family background was similar to that of many Kentuckians. Likens enjoyed the freedom of rural Kentucky as a child, playing in the nearby woods and hunting small game, but always looking for an excuse to go fishing. In his teenage years he learned to embrace the wanderlust he felt and often embarked on lengthy expeditions away from Kosmosdale and his family to explore the larger world, even going as far as Des Moines, Iowa, where he had relations, in 1934, when he was seventeen. He returned only when his meager resources were depleted, and want forced him to hop a freight train back home. Depression-era poverty limited the opportunities that Likens received; he had to leave high school before graduation. Eventually employed as a skilled mechanic and repairman at the Portland Cement plant in Kosmosdale, Likens left his job when the Selective Service System called on March 1, 1941; he joined Company D, 192nd Tank Battalion at Fort Knox, on the eve of war. For Likens and his comrades, the grand adventure that World War II seemed at first to promise took a tragic turn. Likens, like so many other prisoners of war, suffered from disease and malnutrition, from overwork and neglect, and from beatings and torture. His prisoner-of-war experiences left lifelong scars, both physical and psychological, and like many former POWs, he lived his life after the war in a way that was seemingly intended both to escape his past and to embrace the lessons he learned from it. Claude "Leather" Likens passed away on December 12, 1996.4

The following pages are a transcription of Likens's wartime journal. Kept secret throughout his captivity, this now-fragile little [End Page 299] address book is of special historical significance, even beyond its place as the only surviving diary or journal written during the war by a Company D man. Likens's journal is also unique for its complex structure. Likens began his chronicle on the inside of the back cover, with layers of words in black ink and pencil. The lowest level of writing on the original manuscript is in black-ink script and is a faded series of names. The next level of writing is in blue-ink script, and the top level of writing is in bold black pencil. Many following pages combine single-layered script and hand lettering, in both pencil and black ink. Following page 149, the manuscript text includes twenty-seven pages originally written with the journal inverted. These pages tracked from near the back of the journal toward the front of the little book. However, for readability, this edited version again inverts the upside-down pages, which here track backwards from page 177 to page 150.

The reader of this journal can follow in Likens's own words the daily trials and tribulations of a prisoner of war. One can, to some degree, come to understand the POW experience through the eyes of a man who lived through and helped make the history of World War II. Although there are other prisoners' diaries that have survived the war, Likens's journal is also unique in that it is an expression of his thoughts and feelings, fears and hopes, without being an open and direct exposition of these things. In fact, the real strength of this journal lies in the way that its author avoided explicit descriptions of the brutal treatment he and others received at the hands of their captors. As a POW, Likens knew that if he recorded any specific instances of brutality, he would certainly face the retribution of those who inflicted it, should the journal fall into Japanese hands. Thus, the reader will find in the following pages much inference regarding the difficult experiences of captivity. Likens was careful to implicate his captors in their crimes against prisoners, but cannily insinuated that they took place rather than provide direct evidence of them. Likens also filled this small address book with what some readers might think the mundane details of captivity. Those unfamiliar with the prisoner-of-war experience could read the lengthy lists of names and simply shrug them off with little thought. They might see the columns of [End Page 300] Japanese words and think Likens wrote them to pass his time.

But the journal entries are anything but the pointless writings of a bored young man. The reader will realize that each of these entries is pregnant with meaning. The reader will be able to differentiate between the various types of entries and to see how Likens placed special importance on separate entries at different times in his captivity. The entries express his anxiety, fear, and anger. They detail the names of men he knew and the names of those who died. Likens's dutiful recording of these names was an effort to document the humanity of those with whom he shared this incredible experience; if their names appear in his record, their humanity would not be lost. Likewise, this is also an effort to document the lack of humanity exhibited by so many of his Japanese captors, so that their crimes will not be lost to history. By creating this kind of homage to those men who lived and died around him, Likens was also reinforcing his own humanity, knowing that his keeping of a record was serving a larger good.

Likens transcribed many letters he received from his loved ones back in Kentucky. This also serves an important purpose for a prisoner of war. Correspondence with family and friends is of crucial importance to those held in captivity, and Likens read and rewrote those letters in his journal. So this act served to increase his familiarity with the words addressed to him by those who cared for him at home. Moreover, by transcribing those loving words and sentiments, he could keep them with him at all times and run a lesser risk of losing them or of having them confiscated by the Japanese. He could always visit those letters, and therefore visit those who wrote them, in a meaningful way whenever he needed the emotional uplift they provided.5 [End Page 301]

The reader will also recognize poetry into which Likens would occasionally delve. Some of the poetry, especially the poems of Rudyard Kipling, are quite inspirational in nature and would serve to feed his soul during the trying times in captivity. Those words would help gird him and reinforce his belief system when others may have been succumbing to desperation and depression spawned by the seemingly endless internment. In his poems, he lays bare his daily concerns about work, boredom, and the maddening pests that tortured his daily existence, as well as what was often an all-consuming thought—food. At other times, we see Likens pen an original work that is quite irreverent and even bawdy in its words and tone. Part of maintaining one's sense of self or personal identity among others in a prisoner-of-war environment is differentiating oneself and one's beliefs from fellow prisoners who share a similar and rather dark present and future. Survival often depends upon the value that one places upon himself; one must value self to fight each day for his own survival. Otherwise, hopelessness creeps in and erodes self-perception. This leads first to a deadly wavering and eventually to giving up. For the POWs, nothing was as deadly as losing hope.

The reader will also find various examples of mental exercises in which Likens engaged while a POW. These would have served a number of purposes. It is important to combat the intense boredom POWs often experience during captivity. Depression borne out of inability to influence one's own fate arises when the mind is not kept active. The mental exercises would also have served to distract Likens from the often miserable and tedious realities of daily life that surely would sap anyone's ability to cope with captivity. Likens's entries [End Page 302] of specific Japanese phrases are very good examples of this coping mechanism, and they would also have helped him promote his own safety. Japanese guards typically expected prisoners to understand and immediately obey any and all commands they uttered, even though the commands were issued in Japanese. Guards often called prisoners' roll numerous times each day, for example, and if one could correctly count off in Japanese, he would avoid the beating that would surely follow a mistaken count. The common Japanese phrases recorded in the diary clearly would have facilitated conversation with the guards, and would possibly have convinced them of the willing subservience of prisoners to Japanese authority. Likens's translations of Japanese were those of a language learner—elementary but reasonably accurate. He was clearly paying attention to the intricacies of Japanese communication and showed increasing knowledge.6 In addition, numerous entries also suggest that Likens attempted to learn certain Latin, German, and Italian words and phrases, again as a way to keep his mind active and sharp.

All of these components reveal a portion of Likens's POW experience. The fact that he took the time to record and document all the things in this journal shows that he refused to be simply a passive witness to the horrors that surrounded him. Had his captors discovered this journal, it would have been confiscated, and Likens would very likely have been severely punished, even to death. That he believed it was of great significance to make these regular entries and to keep the journal hidden throughout his captivity shows Likens's level of devotion to his comrades and to his own mental well-being.

A note regarding the editing of the journal: editors chose to keep the transcription of the diary as faithful as possible to the original, with some minor adjustments for readability. To heavily edit the words and phrases used by Likens would distort their impact. Throughout the text—both Likens's poetry and his prose—original spelling and [End Page 303] punctuation have been followed as closely as possible, to convey his intent and sense of what, and whom, he held important. Thus, the reader will notice occasional misspellings and other issues that would not appear in finely tuned and professionally polished works of literature. We are confident that Likens would have it no other way.

Likens optimized the space he used to write, as writing materials were scarce. Therefore, the text written in the journal was often crowded on the page, which makes it difficult to decipher. Although original line breaks and spacing have been followed as closely as possible, the editors made some exceptions for this reason. At times, extra line breaks have been entered into the text to indicate paragraph breaks and stanza breaks to improve readability. Poem titles and other text that appear centered on the line in the journal have been left justified. Some columns and rows in charts and lists have been regularized for readability. Unless otherwise delineated, the original text is written in pencil. Changes in writing medium (as at times pencils and pens would have been scarce) are indicated in footnotes. Block letters are indicated in all capital letters. Script is recorded in upper and lower case. The editors also include when someone other than Likens wrote in the journal in footnotes. Cross outs are indicated in the body of the text. Characters and words that have been overwritten with other characters and words are indicated as cross outs with no space before the replacement word or letters. Interlineations are indicated with angle brackets (<>). Illegible words are indicated in the following manner: [illegible]. In the few instances that Likens accidentally repeated a word in a text as he wrote, one of them has been silently deleted.

The following record is testament to one individual's survival. [End Page 304]

This Book was made &
printed By Claude Likens
in case I Should die please
send to Henry Likens Kosmos
dale Ky. Box 66

779
ADDRESS
BOOK
YOKOHAMA
PRISON CAMP
No. D I: 779

PRIVATE FIRST CLASS
CLAUDE LIKENS

Co. -D. 192nd TK-BN.
FORT KNOX
KENTUCKY

KOSMOS
PORTLAND
CEMENT. CO.

KOSMOSDALE
KENTUCKY

"S." NO. 35, 101, 361. AGE 26.

"779"7 [End Page 305]

Page 1

Letters I recieved
from Home
Kosmosdale
Ky
April 14 1943

Dear Son

I am writting8 again
to let you hear from
home, and to let you
know we are thinking
of you.

We are all well,
and want you to know
you have a new
brother in law. Pauline
got married March 13
her husbands name
is Roy Dixon

Your Dad is well
and working every day
All your friends
remember you
and send their lo9
over [End Page 306]

Page 2

The children say
hello to you.
If its possible please
write home.

With Love

Mother & Dad

A letter written to
me Dec 15 1943
in Yokohama prison
camp. Recieved Dec
15,-1943.

Page 3

Kosmosdale Ky
July 24, 194310

Dearest Claude.

We recieved you Card
today that you sent Dec
22nd. 1942, it was a
long time getting here,
But we were sure glad
to hear from you. I am
so glad to know that your
health is good. And that
you are well. We couldn't [End Page 307]
hardly wait to tell
Lavenia Perry she said
she dreamed about you
all nite, the nite before
She Dreamed you Came
home.

Claude please take
good care of Your self
All you friends ask

Page 4

about you, and they
All send their regards
and a big hello. We are
all well and working
very hard. We are all
praying for your safffe
return to us. Lavenia
send her love. She
writes about twise a
week. I hope you are
getting her letters and
ours to. If you ever
get another chance to
write please do. You
dont know how much
it means to us, to hear
from you. Just a card
will do. So long darling
this time Your Sister

Ruby. [End Page 308]

I love you.

Letter I recieved Dec 24th
1943.

Page 5

A letter written me
by my sister in Yokohoma
Prison Camp

Kosmosdale Ky
Wed. July. 7th 1943

Dearest Claude

We recieved word about
you being captured. It was
the saddest day I believe
I ever experienced. I wish
you could write to us.
I would be so happy to
hear from you. Darling
we are all well and
working very hard. Dad
and Charles are busy
in the gardens and Mom
and I are canning every
thing we can. Claude I
wish you could see Patty
she's as big Geraldine
was when you left.
Geraldine is a big as
me. Pauline is just the
the same, and just as [End Page 309]

Page 6

mean. Patty, said tell
you she sure would
like to hug your neck. <Ha Ha.> Pauline got married
March 13th to Roy Dixon
a very nice fellow.
She is still working.

Claude we are all
working and Praying
for you, so please Darling
take as good care of your
self as possible. I love
you with all my heart,
and Soluld. I would give
my write arm just to
see you. Lavenia writes
to you every week. I hope
you get her letters
She owns her own
beauty shop now. and
doing a grand business.
She sends all he love

Page 7

Mom is writing you to nite
I hope you get her
letters Im closing now

Your loving Sister

Ruby. [End Page 310]

I love you I love you
xoxoxo.

A letter I recieved
from my sister
Dec 30th 1943.

I Recieved(2) Letters from
Anita Scott. An old friend
of mine. One Jan1st 1945
one Feb. 20, 1945. Her address
is 2425 Rowan Ave. L. Ky. 11

I Recieved Mail from
My sister Pauline Dixon
They have a baby.). Dec 14. 1944

I recieve mail from my
Aunt G. Menton Dec. 14, 1944

Page 8

I Recieved Mail from
my youngest sister PauGerldine
Likens. Dec 14, 1944.

I recieved mail from
my. Mother Dec 14 1944.
I recieve Mail from
my. father March 30
1945. (2) [End Page 311]

I recieve <(2)> Mail from My
sister Gerldine March
30, 1945.

I Recieved 2 Letters from
Mother & Dad. March 30
1945.

I recieved Mail from Tom
Curry. Dec. 30. 1943.

Page 9

A letter I received from
My Mother in Yokohoma
Prison Camp

Kosmosdale Ky
7-8-4

Dear Son.12

Will write you a few
lines. to let you know
we are all well and
hope you are the same
Your Daddy has been
on his vacation we
didn't go any plase only
Berry picking Benett and
Flora went with us
Pauline is working [End Page 312]
every day Geraldine
is fine. Every thing is
about the same here.
No News of entrest
every body sends their
love and hope you will
be back with us
before very long Write

Page 10

me as soon as you
can.

Your Mother
Mrs Pearl Likens
Kosmosdale
Kentucky.

A Letter I recieved
from my Mother
DJan 4, 1944.

Page 11

second letter recieved
at Yokohama Prison Camp

Kosmosdale Ky
Aug 23-1943

Dear Son13 [End Page 313]

I will write you a
few lines to let you
know, that I got your
card and we sureley
glad to hear from you.
This leaves us all well
and hope it finds you
the same. Lavenia was
here to day. We are
fixing a box <to send> you. We
don't know what you
need most, so if there
is anything that you
need want us to send yo14
let us know if you
can, and we will send
it.

Geraldine had a birth
day party yesterday

Page 12

she had a big time.
You wouldn't know her
she is almost a big
as Ruby. Mary Alice
and Walter have moved
to Indinaana. Every body is
working here, your
daddy is working in
his garden. [End Page 314]

Some of the boys are
going to write you right
away, and every body
sends their love.

Love from you Mother

Mrs Pearl Likens
Kosmosdale
Kentucky.

Letter I recieved
om15 My Mother Dec
20. 1943.

Page 13

a letter I recieved
from mother & Dad in
Yokohoma Prison Camp

Kosmosdale Ky
Jan 22-1943

Dearest Son.

Claude we were so
glad to hear <know > that
you are alright. We
are all well and
hope you are the
same. We could never
tell you how much we [End Page 315]
miss you and want to
see you. we are praying
for the day when you
will get to come home.

Things haven't changed
much at home since
you left Geraldine
is bigger than Pauline
now. Mr. Brown asks
about you often and
all your friends.
Lavenia comes up to

Page 14

see us to. We gave
her a picture of you
She was so proud of it.
She is going to write
to you. Patty is a big
girl now. You Wouldnt
know her. Ruby and
Charles are the same.
Claude we want you
to write as often as
you can. We sure want
to hear from you Be
a good boy. We love you
and think about you
all the time We will
write again soon

With lots of love [End Page 316]

From Mom & Dad and all

A letter recieved from
home Jan. 8. 1944

Page 15 through Page 17 16

Page 18 and Page 19 17

Page 2018

Dominick Piccolo
828 Arnow Ave
Bronx, New York

W. H. Adams
127 W. Brookdale
Fullerton, Calif.

CLYDE P. ROSSELL—490
PERRYOPOLIS
R.F.D. #2 PENNA
14th BOMB. SQD.

Rogers S. Taylor
Baldparie Texas. US.A.
Co. B. 192 Tk. B.N.

Marvin G. Rodgers
Box 78 Holden
Washington [End Page 317]

Page 21

Joseph F Loch
2025 West Ind Ave
South Bend Indiana
Phone 3-4581

Earl King
Bynum, Texas

B. P. NORTHRUP
27A DORLAND St.
San Francisco Calif.

Carlisle. W. Herbert
Ainsworth
Nebraska

X Geo. D. Langdon
BOX 512 c/o H. Goble
Fortuna. Calif.

Page 22

Kaoru Horiuchi
741. 2chome Shimo Ochiai
Yodobashi-ku
Tokyo, Japan
2丁目741番地
ニチョウメナナヒャクイチバン
堀内薫
ホリウチカオル19 [End Page 318]

Yoo Suzuki
94 N. School St.
Honolulu T.H
c/o Norman K. Suzuki

Alfred Chung
1202 C Mao Lane
Honolulu, T.H

Page 23

Henry P. Rhatigan
Wyandotte, Oklahoma.
Box 145.

William B Reynolds
Cache Oklahoma.
c/o W. A. Reynolds

COURTNEY A. FORTH
2490 CHESTNUT ST
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF.

OSCAR DOYLE Long
NEWBERRY, S.C.
VB-2; U.S.S. HORNET CV#12

J A Sprowls
5015 N. 8th St.
Arkansas City
Kansas [End Page 319]

Page 24

Joseph A. Giardina
3815—12th Avenue
Brooklyn, N.Y.

_________
Einar Eidersen
Tonsberg Norway

Mrs W. Seales Apt 4.20
HM Seales WT 1/C USN
1404 Park Road N.W.
Washington, D.C.
Seales Florist
Birmingham. Ala.

___________
Harold D. Lane Co. B. 192 TK.BN.
2809 So. Tripp Ave.
Chicago, Ill.

Bb
BLUE HEAVEN Cords & CHANGES21

Page 25

Poems

To you who are about to read
The Rhymes within this Book
Be not to critigal I pray [End Page 320]
Mistakes please over look
I do not claim to be a bard
I have no Aspiration.
To be a bright and shinny <point of light>
or fore most in the nation
These verses I have written
Just help to pass the time.
I know the meter halts <and limps>
The spelling is quite bad
The Grammatical Construction,
Its enough to drive one mad
This is not an apology
But just an Explanation
Now go ahead a read the thing
Suggest no alterations.

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Claude Likens, probably in the mid-1930s. In the Depression, many teenagers, including Likens, undertook long expeditions away from home to explore the larger world. When his money ran short, Likens sometimes hopped a freight train to return to Kosmosdale. KHS Collections

[End Page 321]

Page 26

Ode. to A. Flea.

You'r such a lively little thing
Retiring an Exclusive
It is because you are so shy
Or Are you just Exclusive
You crawl about and then disapear
You would currapt a saint
I make a despertaate jab at you
But thats just where you aint
You sneak upon my neck at nite
And bite me with out Warning
I cannot catch you at your Work
Ill get you in the morning
You must be a popolur guy
The way my Comrades hunt you
I hear thim toss and moan at Nite
And Earnestly they Cuss You
I'd like to grab you by the neck
And put in a girdle
And hook to a coach &, Four.
Or Make you jump the hurdle
Why must you always torture me
And then hop out of site
You spoil my Sleep & steal my Blood

Page 27

By god its not right
Some nite when its dark & still.
As at my skin you'll peck
Ill catch you by the leg by heck
And break your god Dam Neck. [End Page 322]

The Beasts of Sinagawa22

The Jungles of South Africa
Are teeming so they say.
With every kind of Hungry beasts
Are hunting for their pray.
They have Lions there and tigers
Leopards, Jaguars, and also snakes
And also the very fat Great big hipopotamus
That go swimming in the lakes
In India there are ferocus Beasts
That one must hunt with skill
And Down in South America
Are Animals that they kill
In Asia and Australia
And the Good old U.SA.
There are Animals just hunt for food
By night and by the day.

Page 28

But the Beast of Singagawa
While they donot snarl or growl
Are more than twice as dangerous
As the ones that stalk and prowl
They pierce your skin & suck your <blood>
As over you they creep
They kill you off by inches
For you cannot rest or sleep.
The fleas is sure an awful pest
He hunts for you in Droves
He Explores your whole Anatomy [End Page 323] As over you he goes
He bites you here & bites you there
He bites you every where
No Matter if the skin is smooth
OR, if its growing hair

The Mosquitoes arequite as deadly
In his own peculiar way.
He sails around just like a plane
As he keeps you at bay
He drones & hums & makes a fuss
He drives you to Distraction

Page 29

As for a landing place he seeks
Where he can get some traction
You roll your self within your sheet
But he gets in be sides you
And starts right in to bite
And when he gets all nice a full
He uses all his mussels
To show the others how to Come
And drain off your Corpucles

There comes the lowly bed
bug. A Nasty stinking Thing
He doesn't fly or hop about
He doesnt even sting
He crawls upon you any whereplace
and starts right in to work
You cannot have repect for him
He nothing but a jerk.
He's quit and easy guy to Catch [End Page 324]
He can not hop or fly.
He leaves behind him an awful
stench. That you can tell him
by. He sneaks away and

Page 30

hides him self
In any little crack
And waits until its dark <again>
Before he ventures back.

We also have the body louse
A naughty little Lout
You Cannot scare or bully him
Or even freeze him out
He's in you pants, shirt or soxs
Your bedding and your jacket.
He not afraid of fire or flood
oOr any kind of racket
Just when you think youre rid of <him>
from scratching, you are free
You'll find his son's and daughters
Swarming o're you merrely
He always hungry so it seems
And always snawling at you
The only fway to baffle him
Is to turn into a statue

Page 31

Now only one of these alone
will make you dance and
prance. But when they all
work together, you havent [End Page 325]
got a chance.
If from mosquitoes you would <hid>
And with your bed cloths cover
The fleas and bed bugs chase you out
To where the "skeeters" Hover
If fleas and bed bugs you would fool
And leave your bed to do it
The dam mosquitoes Dive at you
And make you sadly rue it.
And all the time the dirty Louse
Attacks you from the flank.
The only place that's safe from <them>
Is in a Ten ton tank.

The Beasts of Singagawa
Dont attack you with a roar
Nor do they tare you limb from
limb. Like Africa wild boar
But they kill you just a surely

Page 32

as you are one foot high
For lose of blood sleep and rest
Will one day make you die.
In stead of such a lingering death
And torture thats so cruel
I'd rather die in one big gulp
And let their damned Jaws Drool
No punishment devised by man
Could be quite so servere
As the "beasts" of Singagawa
Deal to all of us rite here. [End Page 326]

The Workers of "D."-.1.
We work at Mitsu Bishi23
Doing Labor for the "Nips"
Building Freighters <there> and tankers
And any <other> kind of ships
Our work is not so easy
In fact its very hard <tough>
But if the war lasts long enough
We'll surely know our stuff
There is hardly any kind of work [End Page 327]

Page 33

That some of us caint do.
We could even bulild a rumble seat
Upon a birch canoe

There are riveters & calulkers
And the men who drill the hole
There are those who mix up
special mud. In great bi
concrete bowls. There are different
kind of welders. Both Acety Lene <and arc.>
And the men who clean and sweep <in holes>
Way down where its dark.
There are rigger fitters and
dock men. And those who bend
the pipe. So for any kind of
ship yard work. Most all of us
are ripe.

The Make us ware such funny <suits>
and awful looking Caps
and if it wasnt for our eye
We'd look just like the Japs
Our Cloths are torn and ragged
Like tramp that on the rocks
our shoes are falling all apart
And some have no soxs
We've Noumber tags all over us

Page 34

They are even on our caps
The only place thats vacant
Is the bottoms of our laps. [End Page 328]
There are accidents a plenty
Such as burns cuts and strains
And some get hit by objects
That come toumbling [illegible]down by Cranes
The weilders all get Flashes
From the arc that burns so bright
And suffer untold Agony
As they try to sleep at nite
The work is rather dangerous
The way its carried on,
Its a wonder that more of us are <not hurt>
While laboring for Nippon
We hike about three miles to work
Then when work is done
We line up and hike back again
It isn't any fun

We have no recraeation
No dances or no shows
We caint byuy no gum nor Candy24

Page 35

or fancy underclothes
There isn't much that we can do
But work, eat and sleep
As we are herded here together
Just like a bunch of sheep

We Bango25 <count off> when we leave camp [End Page 329]
And when we leave the yard
And when we line up in section
And then we Bango just a hard
We walk up to aour tplaces of Work
And Bango there once omore
When we come in to eat or chow
And when our dinners o'er
And once again when we line up
To make the home ward run
And again when we reach <camp>
And our days work is done
The food we get to work on
Do<e>sn't make us very strong
And if you think we get enough
I'll tell you now you're wrong

Page 36

A little soup a&26 rice
some thimes a piece of fish
If we could get some beef or pork.
We'd really have a dish
Or steaks orand chops & nice big roasts
And wWith gravy and with dressing
Or if we could get pie & cake
"Boy" wed think it was a blessing
To make up things wich we <lack>
Ill tell you what we'dthey'd do
They give us many pills & shots
And some men get Home brew.
Some times they give us extra stuff,
Like a cookie or fresh fruit
Some times a little sugar
And a pinch of Salt to boot. [End Page 330]

They keep a check on our weight
And if we start to gain
They'd cut the ration down a bit
It sure gives us a pain.
Our pleasures are quit few
Like playing cards and reading <books>
Thats all we can do

Page 37

once and a while we have a <show>
most all of us can sing
We have a few old instruments
And do our best to "swing"
We dont have Atheletic sports
Like volly ball or track
We havent got just what it take
It strengths and Pep we lack
One days rest some time ago
Were few and far between
But now we have them every Week

It Realy is quite keen
To have our sunday to ourselves
To clean and mend our cloths
To rest up from a week of <work>
And lay around and doze.
We have no more inspections
We can rest a& loaf a& rest all day27
We are very much in favor
Of this real and true yas sume28
Our Wages don't amount to much
Just 15 sen a day. [End Page 331]

It might as well be 15 Bucks

Page 38

Because we cannot spend our pay
If we run out of ciggeretts
And we have a barrel of money
We can not buy a single "butt"
It surely does seem funny
When we are free we'll take our <Pay>
And spend it all at once.
To Buy a Bar of Candy
Or a sandwich for a lunch.

So you can see this prison life
Is roughugged and its tough
The way we work and eat and <sleep>
And life its very rough.
We can not do the things we <like>
We must do the things we hate
The ship yard work must go rite <on>
And never once abate
No mater what the future <holds>
When this damned thing is done
Each one will have his
Memmory of <the> Worker of
"D"-1. End.

Page 39

The Red Cross Parcels.

On our first Xmas day in Japan
We got an red Cross box.
There were no muffelers gloves or cap [End Page 332]
Or Even Woolen soxs
But it was filled with lots of chow
The kind the British eat.
With different kind of pudding
And many kinds of meat.
There were chocolates & some candy
Some sugar and some cheese
A can of milk and one of Jam.
And beef stouew cooked with peas
And then some time along in <March>
There wasnt any rush.
We got a lot of nice dried fruit
And some tasty Malted Mush
From then on as days went by
There were rumor by the score
That every man we woluld recieve
Another Box or more.
But these things never came to <pass>
We hoped and looked in vain
We began to bet on Xmas time
Naught to lose and all to gain

Page 40

When Xmas finally rolled around
And shout whent thro the camp
Then all of us perked up our ears
Our spirits were not damp
The word went around and was con<firmed>
The parcels did arrive
And then it was made known to <us>
Two parcels between 5
That knocked our spirits down
a bit But we wer not dismayed
We gethered around in Bunches [End Page 333]
And started in to trade.
The box was filled with thing <to eat>
Some Bully beef and spam
There was powdered milk & Coffee
There were sugar cheese and chocolate
And in case I should forget
I must tell you there were
several pack.
of State side ciggeraetts
The different means employed
by groups to make a fair
division

Page 41

would Tax the ingenuity
of a no one technician
The trading was quite Bright
and Brisk
We all were mixed up in it
Each one was get all he could
There were deals made every <minute>
Coffee went for cigeretts
And Bully beef for spam
And a party loaf for powdered <milk>
And cheese for deviled ham
We all were seeking what we'd like
And paying high to get it
And when we finished up our <deals>
We sat right down and "ate" it
Some men were very hungry
And ate theirs up real soon
And others sortidor of hoarded
theirs And had some left in June [End Page 334]
We had hot Coffee with our cho29
Hot milk and Bully stew
We added meat to soup & rice
Some men got sick its true

Page 42

But most of us put on some <weight>
It surely did us good.
We like to get another Box
We'd buy one if we could.
If those who put the money up
To finance the Red Cross
Could see the good those parcels <did>
They'd count it not a loss
Not only did they make us fat
And make our tummies tight
They Boosted up our morale a lot
Put us back in the fight
If they keep them comming
If there only Just a few
We'll come out with flying
Colors. When this old war
is few.
______________

(Prisner and his Chow).
______________

A prisoner lead a dreary life
His days are full of woe
About the only fun he has
Is when the chow call gos [End Page 335]

Page 43

He thinks of chow all day long
He dreams of it all night.
And if chows a little late
He in an awful Flight.
When they hollow "come a get it"
The wrinkles leave his brow
For nothing goes togeather
Like a prisner and his chow.

He only gets a bit of Rice
Or else a small loaf of bread
And Watery soup thats very weak
And a spoon or two of veg.
Some times there is onions in the <Soup>
Or maybe its just greens
Some times he maybe Lucky
And get a slug of beens
He's ready for whatever comes
And I will tell you now
You had better not come between
A prisner and his chow.

Some times the soup is egg
plant andor an piece or two of squash

Page 44

Some times is greens with soya beans
Ill tell you what by "Gosh"
The worst of all is "daiKon"
It isn't worth a whoop
It taste and smells like hell
It sure is rotten soup [End Page 336]
But DaiKon squash or egg plant
He eats it any how.
For nothing stops the meeting
of a Prisner and his chow.

He'd fight you for a grain of rice
He'd kill you for his bread
And then sit down and eat the loaf
Before you are quite dead
He'd trade off all he owns for food
His "g" string30 towel or soap
His tooth Brush comb or looking glass
Just like a guy on dope
He'd even trade his ciggerretts
He'll get some more some how
There is two things you cant part
Is a Prisoner and his chow.

Page 45

He dreams all day of Steak and chops
Of Roast and corned beef hash
He'll do most any kind of work
for just a bed of Gash.
He wash your cloths and Darn your Sox
And clean your dirty dishes
For the bones and head of fishes
He scraps the laddles nice & clean
Nor leaves a bit I row
It dont sound rite, but thats the way
Of a Prisoner and his chow [End Page 337]
He Scan his Bowl most Carefully
For any bit that lingers
He'll drop his spoon and scrap it out
And then lick off his fingers
And when his turn comes up on bone
He is a happy man
He'll grab them up in both his paws
And quickly as he can
He go where he wont be disturbed
And raise an awful Row
If some one trys to come between
A Prisoner and his chow

Page 46

Some times they serve him extra stuff
cucumbers and tomatoes
There may be liver in the soup
or some small potatoes
He'll watch the server like a hawk
To see he gets his portion
And if he doesn't get his share
He'll start a big comotion
He'll count each piece & wants them cut
To even up some how
For he wants a fair division
For a prisoner & his chow.

In years to come When I sit down
To food thats rich a tasty
To roasts & Steaks & Pies & Cakes
To rich & pasGooey pastry
I'll pawse sometime & give a thought
To what has happen here [End Page 338]
Of how we lived from Meal to Meal
To you it may seem queer
And then before I start to eat
Most Reverently Ill bow
To the fond & sacred Memory

Page 47

Of a prisoner & his chow.

WHEN.31 Its Tenko32 Time In Tokyo

When ts Tenko time in Tokyo
And the sun has gone to rest
Then all the "Doppo" Patients
Get dress up in their best
And line up round the "Rat Pit"
According to their height
They know just how to do it
Cause they do it every nite.
It makes no difference how
they feel. Your feet can hurt like hell
Youve got to take your place
When you hear the tenko Bell
And when you hear "Kiot Ksuke33
You stand there like a stick
You'd better keep your finger stright
And make your heels go "Click"
The "Nip" who has the duty
Are shuffling down the street [End Page 339]
And those who have been sitting <down>
Get Quickly to their feet
The Orderly who has the ward

Page 48

then shouts out his report
of. "So in" Jekko & genza
And he had notbetter not be short
The "nip" goes on to check the Ward
Then shout out his report
of all silly things
A man couldnot escape from here
Unless he grew some wings
The men count off in Jappanease
And shout with all their mite
You'd think the nip which took
the check. Was way off itout of site
When all the wards have made <report>
When all the course is run
You hear the Word Kaisan34
ring out. You know the dam
things done. Then every man goes
to his bunk. and get ready for his bed
YSome Wish that they could smoke
And some wish that they were dead
But when the Groucho35 takes his check
no man is at his ease
When he comes walking down the <hall> [End Page 340]

Page 49

Just like waring kees.
He wants the bango loud & fast
And if its not that way
YouSome one might get bashed
And there will be hell to pay.
He takes delight in finding fauglt
To him we're never right
He makes us bango many times
Its really quite a site
To see him stand with wooden face
And shake his little head
And every patient in the room
Would like to strike him dead
Now Tenko in the morning
Is quite another thing
The barricks leaders do their stuff
We bango and "Kei Rei"
We all line up outside the hut
And form a long straight string.
The barricks leader shows his stuff
We bango and "Kei Reaei"36 When we fall out to get our chow
And start another day

Page 50

When its "tenko" time in Tokyo
A year or two from now
If some one—hollows "Bango"
Ill raise an awful row [End Page 341]

No description available
Click for larger view
View full resolution

Claude Likens, probably in the late 1930s. In April 1941, months before Pearl
Harbor, Likens was drafted and assigned to Company D, 192nd Tank Battalion, a
"federalized" Kentucky National Guard unit training at Fort Knox. KHS Collections

[End Page 342]

I will not care what time it is.
In far off Tokyo
Ill Lean back in my cosy chair
And play the radio.

Claude C. Likens37

Page 51

Paul Hughes
Louisville Times
1212 Castle wood <Ave>
Louisville Ky.

Page 52 38

Page 53 39

ADDRESSES

FRANK. SMITH.
c/o C. S. MILLER.
R.R. #1. CAMP HILL.
ALABAMA.
c/o ARMY NAVY Y.MCA.
MANILA P.I.
___________________________

CARL. S. HARRIS.
ESPANOLA NEW MEXICO
___________________________ [End Page 343]

HAROLD BJ. LAKE
c/o MRS J. P. TANGNEY
3501 S. CLARKSON ST.
ENGLEWOOD COLO.
___________________________

Earl A. Kessler
1006 N. Horbart Blvd
Hollywood Calif.

Alf Sherman
19 Bath St.
Bolton
Lancs
Eng40

Page 54

In case I should
die The finder of this
book please send to
my father who's
address is

Kosmosdale Ky
Henry Likens

Thank you
Claude Likens

Read.41 [End Page 344]
1943 I was turned in
by a British POW for
steealing food in a
near by ware house

Punishment Beat up and
hung up by the thumbs
for 4 hrs fainted 4 times
after cut down thumbs were
1" longer than normal

1943-43, and 44 I had
Pneu—berri beri and Malara

Page 55

NAMES OF MEN
WHO DIED42 IN YOKOHOMA

J. H. Cackley.
Mason City Ill
3-28-43 Died

J. Holmes.
2005 West St.
Willington Del
2-43. Died

L H Taylor
1250 Olive St
Highland. Calif.
Died Taiwan Hospt [End Page 345]

Yakubac
210 Bliss Ave
New Colin Pa
1.-43 Died

B. P. Fourmier
42—2nd St Swanton N.Y

Page 56

Men who died in
Yokohoma Prisners Camp

C. W. Hunsinger
Windom Texas.
10-23-42. Died

A. G. Mudge
102 S. Dewey St
Platte Neb.
12.-42 Died

W. B Lynn.
246 Rhein
Mansfield Ohio
4-18-43 Died

B. M. Lyon Jr.
760. Canyon Crest Drive
Sierramadre Calif

T. L. Stewart
1907 Atlantic Ave
Long beach Calif [End Page 346]

Page 57

Men who died in
Yokohoma Prisnears Camp

J. H Hendricks
1907 Atlantic Ave
U.S.M.C. Wash D.C.

J. F. Cavender
1907 Sanderson Texas
3-43. Died

J. W. Larson
3535 Jeffirson St.
Kansas City Mo
6-1-43 died.

J. L. Atkinson
1852 Fern Rd.
Lakeland Fla.
3-43 Died

Littlefield
1193-63 St Oakland Calif
12-224-42 Died

O. R. Brisco
515 W. Poplar St
Galveston Texas
12-42 Died

Page 58

Men who died in Yokohoma [End Page 347]
prisn Camp

Spencer
1555 Palama
Honogalu Hawaii
1-8-43 Died

G. W. Ramsey
4620 Altadena St
San Diego Calif.
3-43. Died

L. E. Klett Jr.
410 Palm Drive
Beverley hills Calif
11-5-42. Died

Robertson D. S.
Gen. Del.
Indus Minn.
3-43. Died

J. Treveil
218 Sequn St
Algeirs La
Tokyo Died

J. C. Morris J. C.
R.F.D. Box 146
Ridgefield Wash <Tokyo.> Died

Page 59

Men who died in
Yokohoma Prisnears Camp [End Page 348] R. E. Wellington
Dillon Mont.
2-43 Died

W. E. Bledsoe.
Guywon Okla.
2-43 Died

A. C. Christian
Adon. Wyo.
2-43 Died

D. L. Brasseau
6724 Keeler Ave
Dalhart Texas
3-30-43. Died

N. L. Kowalewski
8. River side
Yonkers N.Y.
4.-10-43. Died

H. Boehnke
Route 2. Box 180
Gleason Wisc
3-4-43 Died

Page 60

Men who died in
Yokohoma Prisneers Camp

Aubie C Hudson
Route 1. Makenzie
Alabama. 3-7-43 [End Page 349]

Everett R. Bell. 3-21-44
2822.—5th St OMaha Neb.

J. a. Beartlett
Deer trail Colo
4-44. Died.

Page 61 43

Page 62 44

New Comers to Camp

R. H. Ames
265—18th Ave
San Francisco. Calif.

Page 63 45

FRED FAGG
832 ELLICE AVE
WINNIPEG. MAN.

Wm Geo Boulette
150 Long Side St
Winnipeg
Man
Can
______________ [End Page 350]

LEE C. SPELLER
R.MD 3#
3905 CAREY RD.
VICTORIA, B.C.

Buster. Agerbak.
#606. Mc Millan. Ave.
Winnipeg. Manitoba
Canada
________________

Page 64

LLOYD. O'LEARY
PERCÉ. GASPÉ.
P. Quebec. Canada.

Kenneth M. Gaudin
Escuminiac Flats,
Bona. County
Pro. Que., Can.
_____________________

Wt Earl L Wild AIR. CORP.
BARNARD Kansas
RFD #1
% Mrs. May Mastellar.

Page 65 46

Page 66

New Comers to Camp. [End Page 351]

FR. H. Ames
265. 18th St.
San Francisco Calif

W. I. Gaffey.
455 n. Willard St.
Coquille Ore.

John. C. McCandles
364 Pennsylvania Ave.
Oatsmont Penn.

R G. Schacht
Leiu. U.S.N.
Bulington Wash.

Walter Maddocks
Gen Del. Torrance Calif

James LeRoy Turner
1605 Divasion Ave
Tocoma Wash

Page 67

Don W. Butler
615. Bluff St.
Council Bluffs Iowa

Lieut. <USN> B. R. Van Buskirt
390. West End Ave
Apt. 9. K. South N.Y. City [End Page 352]

Spencer Hewitt
905 Pomona Ave
Coronado Calif

Bill. Fairey.
89. San Pable Ave
San Francisco Calif

Frank J. Grady Capt. <U.S. Army>
% Major A. H. Easterman
Hdqtes Eight Corps Area
San Antonia Texas

Page 68

Jack Clinton
Ensign USN.
6902 Woodward Ave
Bell Calif.

R. S. Wilkins.
1419 McGee Ave
Berkley Calif

L. H Russell.
602 "B" Ave
La Grande. oOreg

Wyle M Hunt
Ensign) USN
c/o Woodrow Hunt
6838 Rico Court
San Diego Calif. [End Page 353]

Page 69

My Weight since
a prisner of War.47

May 6-1942.—167 lbs
June 10-1942—140
July 22-1942—132
Aug 1-1942—128
Sept 1-1942—140
Sept 18-1942—149
Sept 31-1942—156
Oct-31-1942—161
Nov-14-1942—172
Dec 25-1942—170
Jan-10-1943—170
Feb 1-1943—170

Page 70

My weight since taken
prisner May 6—1942

Mar-1-1943—165
April-1-1943—160
May-15 1943 160
June-1-1943—160
July-1-1943—155
Aug-10-1943—150
Sept-1943—152
Oct 2-1943—145
Nov 10-1943—142½ [End Page 354]
Dec 24-943—145
Jan 1-1944—140

Page 71

My. Weight since
taken prisner May 6—1942

Feb-1-1944—135
Feb 28 1944—135
Mar 11-1944—140
April 2-1944—145
May 15 1944—145
June-10 1944 150
July-1-1944 150
Aug-1-1944—150
Sept 13-944—149 ½
________________48

Oct-1st-1944—70 Kgs.49
Jan-1-1945—72 Kg
Feb.-1-1945—70 Kg.
March. 1-1945—70Kg.

Page 72

Weight Check
March 31-1945—73 Kg
April-28-1945—62 Kg
May-14-1945—60 Kg
June-20-1945—59 Kg [End Page 355]
July-31-1945—59 Kg
Aug-31—

Page 73

A Poem by Kipling50
If. IF.
If you can keep your head
when all about you,
Are losing theirs and
blaming it on you.
If you can trust yourself
when All men doubt you
Yet make allowance for
their doubting, too;
If you can wait and not
be tired of waiting
or being lied about a
dont deal on lies
Or being hated, dont
give way to hating
And yet not look to
good nor talk to wise

If you can dream and
Not make dreams your
Master
If you can think
and not make thoughts

Page 74

Your aim. [End Page 356]
If you can meet with
Disaster triumph
and disaster
and treat those
two imposters just
the same
If you can bear to
hear the truths you've
spoken
Twisted by knaves
to make a trap for fools
Or see the things
you gave your life
to broken
And stoop to build
them up with worn
out tools

If you can make one
heap of all your
winnings

Page 75

And risk it one turn
of pitch or toss.
And lose and start
again at your begining
And never breathe a
word about your loss
If you can force your
heart and nerve and
sinew
To serve your turn
long after they are gone [End Page 357]

No description available
Click for larger view
View full resolution

"Note on War in PI." Likens sometimes recorded his experience in narrative, as on
this page which lists battles he fought on Luzon and Bataan, his time on Corregidor
and Fort Drum, and the first work details as a prisoner of war. KHS Collections

[End Page 358]

and so hold on when
there is nothing in you
Except the will that
says to them "hold on.

If you can talk with
crowds and keep
your Virtue.
or walk with kings
Nor lose your <the> common
touch

Page 76

If neither foes or loving
friends can hurt you
if all men Count. with
you but none to
much
If you can fill the
unforgiving minute
With sixty second
of distance run
Yours is the world
and everything thats
in it
And which is more
You'll be a man
My Son.51

(Kipling.)52 [End Page 359]

Page 77 53

(Personality)54

What is personality?
It something which
Makes a person either
likable or unlikeable
agreeable or disagreeable
Welcome or unwelcome.

(The Voyager)55

Help me, O God in the
Quest of life, To find my
self.
As I pass through the <ivory>
gates of Morning
And the ebon doors of
Night
Let Beauty make me
a ware
For the passports of
Personality
Have I set sail on the
vast gates56 deep of dist
iney [End Page 360]

Page 78

The (Poems) Voyager

To gather the glistening
fruit of self culture
The delicate silken
fabric of Dreams
The altar and myrrh
of Friendship
And the fine Gold of
Charactor
Persuaded that the
beleaguered Soula
Surrenders only to
these.

By
Ewen Leibfreed57

(Poems)58

The Market Place

I would shop with
you in the Market
Place
of life.
Together we would
buy the secret of the
stars.
The perfume of souls [End Page 361]

Page 79

The wine of sweeter Worlds
A painting or two of dreams
Sketched by immortal
hands
A cloak of snow-chaste
charity
A few books from the
Library of the heart
A poem or song drawn
from the Air
A coveret of rest from the
loom of the nite
A jewel from the
Casket of Truth.
A tapestry woven of
heart throbs
Passions and sweet
regrets.
A lamp with the
unextinguishable
light of love.
A few shoes of

Page 80

Poems.59

Adventure60
A top coat of Celestial
Aire
And then let us [End Page 362]
pay for it all.
With the uncounterfeited
Coin of
Contentment.

Ewen Leibfreed

The man of a
thousands love
________________

ADVERBS.61

I find the great things62
in this

world is not so
much where we
stand As in what
direction we are
moving. To reach
port we must sail
and not drift nor
lie at anchor

O. W. Holmes

Page 81 63

There is no defeat64
except from within [End Page 363] There is really no
insurmountable
barrier save your
own inherent
weakness of purpose

Emerson.65

How few think justly66
of the thinking few
How many ever
think who think they
do. (Unknown.)

Our chief want in67
life is somebody who
shall make us do
what we can. A
service of a friend

(Emerson)

Page 82

We envy those with68
brilliant minds
And yet it sometimes
seems to me.
We each have
talent
given us.
Our problem is to
set them free. [End Page 364]

(R. McCann.)

Happiness lies not69
in the mere possession
of Money. It
lies in the joy of
achievement in
the thrill of creative
power.
(Franklin D.
Roosevelt.)

Page 83 70

English & Spanish

English Spanish
English Spanish
Await va71 aguaralar <esperan>
Awake a72 despierto
Awaken va73 despertar
Away ad74 ausperto <legos fuera>
Awful a75 terrible funesto <horrorasa>
Baby s76 nino. nine munica
Back dorso espaida reves
Backward atras alreias
Bacon tocino
Bad— mal, malo perverso
Bakery— panaderia
Bashful— Timido
Bashfulness modestia
Behind detras <al reves>
Being este persona <este estencia>
Believe va Creer
Belong— pertinecer tocar
Beside— cerca alladode
Better — major
Big grande y encinto

[End Page 365]

Page 84

Boat— bote barco
Book— libro - registrar
Bottle— botella frasco
Rough ramo braso de senora
Brave valiente elegante
Break rotura
Bring llevar traer
Brown bruno morens
Butter manteca repostera
Buy Comprar
Buyer Comprador
By— por—ende—cer ca
All means careste lo que Auste
and de aqui a poco
the— de paso
day de dia
chance acaso
no means— de ningern mode
oneself solo
Byway camino desvirado
Cake torta pan pastel
Call llamade

[End Page 366]

Page 85 77

Pages 86 and 87 78

Page 88

A. Patterson
Paradise Texas.79

R. W. Towers
c/o Lawrenson
Seguin Wash

W. L. Lauer
151.—24th St N
St. Cloud Minn.

Harold T. Tenney
Landburg. Mass.

Donald C. Norris
1506 Hague St
St. Paul, Minn

Page 89 [End Page 367]

C. Swanson
421 Cather Ave
Superior Wisc.

C. D. Rose
418 N. Millwood St
Witchita Kan

C. Schmitt
815 N Lafayette
Evansville Ind

A. J. Stankley
Hasting Nebr.

G. Hernandez
141 Lyman St.
315 E. Kellogg St
Witchita Kan

B. Tomason
Route 1. Box 64
Porterville Calif

Page 90

R. R Hanson
84 E 3rd St
New York New York
Spencer Texas

T. E. Atkins
Clarksville Texas [End Page 368]

R. I. McDonald
RFD. Lanham Md.

J. Sarata
13 N. E St
Holyoke Mass

B. W. Givens
Miarm Fla

A. O. Hudson
Route 1.
McKenzie Ala

Page 91

R. A Tagouture
45 S. St
c/o C Ross
Bedford Mass

N. R. Risseler
Box 243 Jal. N. M.

F. A Windall
36 Golf Rd.
Upper Darby, Penn

C. H. Smith
26 Summer Ave
St Louis Mo.

K. J. Stull
Pelley Texas [End Page 369]

W. Forsting
4804 St Louis Ave
St Louis Mo.

Page 92

Claude Likens
18th St Road
Kosmosdale Ky.

M. F. Fargen
Hillspoint Wisc.

P. Muller
Star Route
Tolar N. M.

O. A Greer
R.F.D. 1 Wooden vill
Washington

W C. Over Mire
Abequerque N.M.

S. Rogers
1628 N. Sierr a Bonite <Ave>
Pasadena Calif.

Page 93

McQueene L. M
511 W 144th St New York NY.

C. F. McKee Box 205 Alex. Okla [End Page 370]

E. G. Smith Box 123
Clovis N.M.

R. A. Hunilik
Artesio<a>. N.M.

Douglas W. B
Dublin Texas

H. Depanion
c/o Badou. St 46 Madson <St>
Worcester Mass

W. Graves 305 S Gold St
Demming New M.

Page 94

Domanski C. J.
Gen Del. Detroit Mich

776. J. N. Peterson
5017 S Johnson St
New Orleans La.

F. S. Sloan
1552—5th Ave
Watervoilet N.Y.

Florez B. aA.
102 Castella St
Santonia Texas

J. Zeto
c/o Charles Dedeton [End Page 371]

3279 Ampere
Bronx NY.

O. D. Greelish
4808 Tourville Ave
Jacksonville. Fla.

Page 95

867. L. Arcuri
652 W 23nd St
Erie Penn

870 Collins E R.
Box 74. Wendell Idaho

955 E. R. Crowe
414 Main St.
Springfield Ore.

847 K. W. Edwards
Green Cone Va.

856 E L. Evans
Qtrs 12 Verba Buena
1st San Fran Calif

743 A. J. Poussard
46 Peabody S.
Salem. Mass

Page 96

7014 Morris J. B.
RT. 1. Cayuga Texas [End Page 372]

775 Nelson J. V.
1345 Fourth Ave E.
Kalis Bell Mont

869. N. L. Fox
708 W 1 St
Willmington Calif

882 Gibson V E.
Folkston Ga

954 Allender T. B.
2716 Hood St Dallas
Texas

938 J. A. Bartlett
Deer trail Colo

Page 97

Men who died.80

930. Middleton E. A.
1236 Colfax Ave
Deaver Col

958. J T. Widdifield
Monroe Va.

978 E. A. Thomas
1103 Myrtle St Oakland
California [End Page 373]

961 I. C. William
Rt 1. Killean Texas

960 O. H. King
31 Mechanic St
Quincy. Mass

929 T. E Belch
Washom Texas

935. R. C. Steel
Pleasonton Kansas

Page 98

Men Who died81

852 J. O. Henry
65. W. 83 St. New York
NY.

915 C. A. Jaeger
Box 54 Geddes ND.

878 R. M Bussel mire
2329 Chester St
North Bend Ore.

875 H. D. Cawthon
7023 Edison Ave
St Louis Mo. [End Page 374]

841 E E Clark
1007 Tell St.
San Fran Calif

874 K. L. Harris
1149 W. 6th St
Eugene Ore

Page 99 82

Men who died

934 R T Sparks
Edin Texas

960. N. H. King.
R.T.H. Cochron Ga

864. R. aR. Burt
2. Pershing St
Norwark Conn

851. R. A. Hill.
Rhd 1. Box 188B.
Pensacola Fla.

987. R. L. Raymond
P.O. Box 19. Warrenton
Texas Oregon.

926. J. P. Barthelll
9203 Kentucky Ave
Kansas City Mo. [End Page 375]

Page 100

893 Washburn HE.
401 E. Osborne St
Hulchinson Kan

979 Stearns W. R.
2401 Sunset Blvd.
Sioux City Iowa

837 Brown C. M.
133 Homestead Ave
Lalinas Calif

868 B. Abrams
230 McKibbon St
Brooklyn N.Y.

990. JwW Bowen
5. Martinez Caridal
Cavite P.I.

932 C. B. Carraway
Box 652 Jefferson City Tenn

Page 101

836. S. G. Bowler
316. Van Buren Ave
American Falls Idaho

843. R. J. Couch
2439 Forest Ave
Jacksonville Fla. [End Page 376]

No description available
Click for larger view
View full resolution

"My Weight Since a prisner of War." Likens meticulously charted his weight through
the vicissitudes of POW life. The rapid loss in the summer of 1942 reflects the
trauma and brutal treatment of capture, work details, and horrific ship and rail
transfers after the fall of Corregidor. KHS Collections

[End Page 377]

896. H aA. Kenyon
13 Goodwin Ave
Newport R.I.

908. H. G. Stoddard
Lake Charles La.

952 L. C. Trimble
335 9th Ave W.
Des Moines Iowa

992 J. C. Walsh.
Mountian City Tenn

Page 102

918. Bushhilla
R F.D-1. Belmaire Ohio

861. W. L. Weekley
R F.D.-5
Summit Miss

910 G. B. Tribukait
465 Wheeler Ave
San. Fran. Calif.

909. V. P. Burnett
1207 W. 20th St
Kansas City Mo.

866. E. H. Stockdale
Kooshia Idaho [End Page 378]

840. E. T. Chaves.
235 S. 31st St.
San Jose Calif.

Page 103

876. R. A. Harralson
Box 65. Applegate Calif.

963. E. R. Feldt.
384 N. N. Hardwig Ave
Chicago Ill.

886. E. L. Melott
3770. Gage Ave
Bell Calif

845. J. R. Fransher
826 Obispo St.
Long Beach Calif.

905. L. Cooke
831 W. North St.
Spring field Ohio.

912. G. E Williams
c/o Mrs. J aA. Stewart
Chinese Gen Host Manila
Philippine Islands

Page 104

927. T. J. Niefield
Grand Forks. N. D. [End Page 379]

992. B. T. Hall.
515 W. Poplar St
Olaths Kansas

889. J M. Leaverton
c/o Postmaster Greenly Col.

885. W. C. Webb.
507 W. 37th St
Savanah Ga.

850 P. Johnson
1093—Celestino Aragon
Manila P.I.

880. H. E. Hooper
c/o Moose Lodge
Compton Calif.

Page 105

957 R. N Lukins
Box 96 Mar Mich

948 J. E. Singletary (R. T.)
Gonzales Mo.

996 F Johnson
510 Dillon Ave
Sterling Ill.

S
842. H E. Clarke
701 Sheridan Rd.
Peoria Ill. [End Page 380]

944. C. H. Christian
509—3rd St
Hoquian Wash

890. J. Moural Jr.
1752 S. Normal Ave
Chico. Calif.

Page 106

901. W. J. Pringle
111 E 11th. St
Silver City N.M.

897. G. J. Stearman
215 N Glenn
Whitita Kan.

865 Whit mire L. R.
3610. Central Ave
San Diego Calif.

917. Jones D. E.
R.F D. 1. Jones boro. Tenn

975 R. H. Lee
7736 Phelps St
Detroit Mich

947. H. R. Maples
Rt. 6 Box 108 Tulsa Okla.

Page 107

914. Schreckert
W. Main St Parsons Kan [End Page 381]

913 Wroble F.
2131 Latrobe Ave.
Chicago Ill

916 J. E Jarger
Box 54. Geddes. N.D.

849 Miller A.
1508 E. Maddox Ave
Fort worth Texas

900 Pemberton R. C
c/o Archie Pemberton
Glen Mary Tenn

860. C. E. Pierce
RFD. Box 61. Grove N.C.

Page 108

928 Frantzen R. O
P.O Box 709
N. San Diego Calif.

921. H. R. Consor
105 St Ana Ave
Long Beach Calif.

838 R Y. Cambell
Gen Del. Honolula T.H
Marion Ill.

8
858 H. W. Koviak
409 Jefferson Ave [End Page 382]

Sharon vill Ohio.

853. D Gugot
Gen Del. Arcola Ill.

857 B. E. Johns
Salem Mo

Page 109

971. Miller J.
31370. Summit St
Pasadena Calif.

891. T. J. Morgan
202 E 9th St. Rome Texas

941. G. A. McKasson
302 Carumerial St
Atchinson Kansas

939 B. C Demmon
R. R1. Box 211 Gary Ind

H. G Breckenfield 889
Gen Del.
Winthrop Harbor Ill.

873 Johnson E L Rt 1. Bx 70
Mon mouth Ore

872 Butter field
Condor. NY. [End Page 383]

Page 110

922. E G. Anderson
4 Talmoth St.
Everett Mass

984 Wad low E. G.
Gen Del Seminole okla

c
871 Brell hauer
2nd St Menasha Wisc

884 JaC. Norris
RF.D. Box 146
Ridgefield Wash

J D. Thompson 969.
167 Gardner St.
Vallys Calif.

940 Millerx JW. G.
c/o Mix's Corner Store
Dear Park Wash.

Page 111

Men who died83

R. G. Fry
3308 W. Lawrence St
Phila Pa 894. [End Page 384]

Truelove .A. 924
Bx 488 Casa Grade Ariz.

T. S. Woodward 925
R. I. Walsenburg Col

O. D. Remine. 951
980 Sims St
Dickinson N.D.

995 C. J. Hanson
1902 Stanley Ave
Long Beach Calif.

962 D. L Schultz
Glendel Glen Ullin N.D.

L. C Sweatnean 985
Box 1753 Chillicathe Tex

Page 112

Roy O. Mc. Phail
1006 Grand Ave
Fort worth. Ave
Fort worth Texas

L
David K. Phillipps <Jr.>
Geary
RR. #3. okla.

Richard C Maynard
Sherman Ave
N. Collins N.Y. [End Page 385]

Herman L. Calloway
R. #5 Bossie Idaho

Jackie E Kirby
R. #3 Box. 145 Watsonville
California

Pete Muller
Tolar
Star R. New Mexico

Page 113

Manuel R. Armizo
Glorieta N.M.

Carl Besley
Con fluence Ky.

Floyd M. Guyer
3113 S. Pusset Sound <St>
Tacoma Wash

Buddy Chesney
73 Bun Combe St
Woodruff S.C.

Jerome E. Weingartner
104 N Owens St
California Mo.

James E. McMahali
1930 A. States St.
Granite City Ill. [End Page 386]

Page 114

A E. Sanderson
1944 Aurelia St
Detroit Mich

Fred W. Mathews
300 Blackwell Rd
Ranger Texas

Frank H. LeRoy.
354. W. Wash St.
Phoenix. Ariz.

Walter Thor man
Feather Falls Calif

John P Snellen
R. #1. Hugo Okla
c/o J. T. Holton.

Pershing. Harvey
Shelbyville
R #1. Tex.

Page 115

Woodrow T. Kincaid
San Saba Texas

Rufus H. Turnbow
R. #3 Konawa Okla

Billie M. Dale
Garvin R. #1. Okla [End Page 387]

Vernon A. Wheatley
1825 W 83rd St
Los Angles Calif

Archie E White
Dublin Ind

Arther C. Reynolds
Poseyville
Stewartville Ind

Casey Carter
193 N 13th St.
Paris Texas

Page 116

Clyde S. Sumrall
Box. 161.
D. Caxune Miss

William H. Rhodes
R. #3. Starksville Miss

Curtis E Heaton
121.st Stanton Texas

Cecil. N Hawes
#16. Montecello St
Hazelhurst Miss

LeRoy Grant
R. #1. Farlsboro Okla

Sam L. Peters [End Page 388]
349 Warsaw St.
Keiser Pa.

Thomas C Campbell
Shuqualak Miss.

Page 117

Harold A. Morey
417 S. Olympia St
Tulsa Okla.
Ph. 3-1267.

Anthony N. DeAliselis
Dysart Pa.

Felix D. Lucero
Ponpexs Pillor
Mont.

Artie A. Bressi
350 Melrose St.
Vestabury <Keiser> Pa

Robert J. Meade
Huntington W. Va.

Donald L. Baker
Vestabury Pa.

Page 118 84

K. P. H. Lawrence [End Page 389]
203 Heshfield Rd.
Hart Will Melbrume
Australia

Jerry Mix
Mix's Corner
Deer Park Wash.

Dale B Frantzs
2715 Market Ave
Canton Ohio

Genn H Beyer
Orange City
c/o A. J. Beyer. (Iowa)

Roy J. Bundy
703 Center St.
Elizabeth City North Co85

Page 119

Lyle W. Castle.
102 W. 13th St.
Rockfalls Ill

William F. Swosser
818 Nims St
Wichita
c/o A. L. Myers (Kan).

I. J O'Donnel
16 Fehsburg Way [End Page 390]

Camberwell
Melbrume Aust

George Francisco
Graham Texas.

E. O. Hendricks
Carthase Texas

Jame B. Cook 800
Lake Village Ark.

Page 120 86

R. Palmer
West Cott
102 Station Road
Arksey Doncaster Yorkshir
England.

M. Hermansen
Wesselstate 77
Stavanger Norway

E. E. A. Christiaan
Kamal
Madoera Java

Mr. J. South
36 Shelley Way
Sutton Trust Estate
St. Budeaux
Plymouth Devon Eng. [End Page 391]

Glen M. Tannehull
Augusta Montana.

Page 121 87

Morgan French
Harrods Burg Ky

Clyde Hopper
Marray Ky

Jabe B. C. Smith
Middletown Ohio

Manard Cravens
Irvington Ky

Earl Fowler88
Burgen Ky

J Aren Tolman
Layton Utah RFD. #1.

Russel D Spotts
922 Main St.
Fort Morgan C [End Page 392]

No description available
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View full resolution

Some of the draftees in Co. D, 192nd Tank Battalion, Fort Knox, probably November 1941, just before the battalion shipped out for the Philippines. Of the fourteen tankers pictured here, most of them Kentuckians, only three are known to have survived the war: Claude Likens (third row, second from right); Aaron Clyde Hopper (second row, third from right); and Jabe C. Smith (second row, first on right). Those who died—First row, left to right: Robert H. Brooks, aerial bomb, Clark Field; Raymond J. Graham, dysentery, Cabanatuan; James Melvin Carter, sinking of Hell Ship Arisan Maru; Thomas Franklin Brooks, beriberi, Cabanatuan; Second row, left to right: Eber L. Boden, pneumonia, Bilibid; Clarence L. Allen, dysentery, Cabanatuan; Hopper, survived; William H. Jardot, sinking of Arisan Maru; Smith, survived; Third row, left to right: Unknown; James Louis Choate, Palawan Massacre; James Edward Jones, dysentery, Camp O'Donnell; Likens, survived; James Campbell Secrist, pneumonia, Camp Nomachi, Japan. In total, forty-eight of Co. D's 128 personnel (37.5 percent) died in the war.

[End Page 393]

Page 122 89

ADDRESSES
GEO SAVAGE J.R.
R.F.D. #2 ASHLAND KY

RAYMOND ISON
R.F.D. #1 ASHLAND KY

R. L. JESSIE
BURKESVILLE KY

JAMES R. SHY.
112 E DRY ST. HARLON KY

LEE E WILSON
THALA KY

K. R. MILLER
GLOSGOW KY
ROUTE #4.

CLAUDE A. JONES
JONESBORO TENN
R.F.D. #1 c/o MRS B. J.

Page 123 90

ADDRESSES

WILLIAM RAY HARDISTER <782>
CARTHAGE NORTH CAROLINA. [End Page 394]

GEORGE YAKOPCA 793
3008 MARY ST
SOUTH SIDE PITTSBURG PEN

CLYDE W. WALDREP 831
R.F.D #3. LIVINGSTON TEX

VERT GRAY 808
308. E 1st AVE
MESA <PHENIEX> ARIZONA 1113 S. 7th St91

PETER B MANNIX 781
359—29th AVE
SAN FRANCISCO CAL.

PETER B MANNIX
22 2441 1914 Webster92
SAN FRAN CAL.

Page 124

JR. CHRISTIAN
438<5>2 RIDGEWAY AVE
ASHLAND KY.

A MILLER
1508 E MADDOY AVE
FORT WORTH TEXAS

FRED VITSTOE
HAZARD KY [End Page 395]

J. E. HENDREX
PaADUCAH KY

NOAH MULLINS
MOSSY BOTTOM

LORANZO NDON STEVENS
237 JULIUS AVE
PIKESVILLE KY.

ROY MORRIS
6 W 28th ST. COVINGTON KY

Page 125

ADDRESSES

R. A. HUFSTUTLER 943
HAMILTON TEXAS

MARSHALL JOHNSON
KENT IOWA

WILLIAM L JOBE 785
2005 WEST 5th ST. ARMARILLO TEXAS

MINACH REECH
2300 WAGE ST. ASHLAND KY.

BERT RIGGS
2609 GARFFIELD ASHLAND. KY

M. V. POWERS
2430 ROOSEVELT ASHLAND KY [End Page 396]

A. A. HIRST
2625 ROOSEVELT ASHLAND KY

Page 126

ADDRESSES

J. J MccCORTS
BOX 172
COSTA MESA CAL.

NOAH Q. DAVIS JR.
333 MAPLE AVE
NORFOLK VIRGINIA

J. L. KOON
510 LINCOLN PLACE
HIGHLAND PARK. ILL.

HELEN TOPPING
351 PINGO ASHLAND. KY.

DAVID DAUVELL93
IRVINGTON KY

EUGENE ODERS
1010 ORCHARD ST.
NEWPORKT KY

Page 127 [End Page 397]

ADDRESSES

D. A. CADWELL
2087 MUVA ST LOUISVILLE Ky.

Y. M. RIGHT MYER
1005 LINCOLN NEWPORT KY

R. T. LILE
PLESENT VEIEW FARM
CLARKBURG KY. Clarkson94

JOHN TOMPSON
SUMMERSET KY

J. L. COY.
1250 PARK ST.
BOWLING GREEN KY

A P. SULT
1014 E WASHINGTON ST
LOUISVILLE KY

Page 128

ADDRESSES.

Men who died

JOHN COOK 626
74 COURT HILL CRESCENT
KILSYTA
STIRLING SHIRE SCOTLAND. [End Page 398]

JAMES GIBSON 62895
9 KENTIGERN TERRACE
BISHOPBRIGGS
GLASGOW SCOTLAND

ANDREWS FERGUS 627
44 CHARLES ST.
KILSYTH STERLING SHIRE
SCOTLAND

A. M. CAMPBELL 617
SEAFORTH GARDENS
DINGWALL ROSS-SHIRE
SCOTLAND.

Page 129

ADDRESSES

Men who died

R. GRANT.
49 ADELPHI ST.
SOUTH SIDE GLASGOW C5
SCOTLAND

A. A. LINDSAY
14 WARRENDER PARK. R.S
EDENBURGH SCOTLAND

W. ROBERTS
c/o MRS. [End Page 399]
T. NEIL 634
22 EWART ST
MELVERN VICTORIA
AUSTRALIA

D. SIMPSON
20 DALMALBLY ST.
GIBBSHILL GREENOCK
SCOTLAND

Page 130

ADDRESSES

A. SUTER 68696
3 GRAMSMER ST.
SHEFFIELD 6
YORKS ST. ENGLAND

C. TUTOR
140 CUXTON ROAD
STROOD. NR ROCHESTER
KENT ENGLAND.

E. C. SCHOFIELD
148 LORD ST. NEWTOWN
SIDNEY N.S.W AUST.

JOHN A. S. DAVIS
GONZALES TEXAS. [End Page 400]

MRS R. LAWSON 631
38 LETHAM COTTAGE
BY FALKIRK
U.K. STERLING SHIRE SCOTL.

Page 131

ADDRESSES

Men who died

E. BEGG
72 TUPHALL ROAD
HAMILTON LANARKSHIRE
SOCOTLAND.

C. J. WILLOLIGHBY.
17 FARIARS CLOSE
BEAR LANE
SOUTHWARK
LONDON S.E.1 ENG.

WILLIAM T. DEWEY
74FF BOLTON ST., NEW-CATSTLE
NEW SOUTH WALES AUST.

TALMADGE R. CAMP 798
GEN. DEL. MARSHALL TEXAS.

A. T. SINKS
903 N. MONROE, ST.
KENT IOWA. [End Page 401]

Page 132

ADDRESSES

CHARLES E. HUNNINGS <781>
114 S. 777C. DANIEL ST.
KINSTON N. CAROLINA.

WARREN G. McNEESE 78097
QUINCY MISS. R.R. #1.

HERBERT C. KENT 786
BEMGE, WASH.

BILL THOMASSON
ROUTE #1. BOX 64.
PORTERSVILLE CALIF.

J. H. DODSWORTH
30 DUKE ST. MILLFIELD
SUNDERLAND ENGLAND.

W. R. GRANT.
CHIEF ENGINEER
INDO-CHINA STEAM
NAY. CO. LTD. HONG KONG

Page 133

ADDRESSES

C. C. SEVERS
QORGUAM P.O. [End Page 402]

BOREGUM MINE
KOLAR GOLD MINE
SOUTH INDIA.

V. E. J. BRACKSTONE LTD. CFO. LLOYDS BANK LTD.
HORNBY ROAD
FORT BOMBAY INDIA.

MELVIN L. COOLEY
PENROSE—COLO.

FRANCIS L. WAGENBLAST. 98 SUMMIT AVE
SHELLINGTON PEN

J. C. ELLIS
DENTON GEORGA.

Page 134

ADDRESSES

DELBERT NOLAN 713
KIRKS VILLE KY

LONNIE M. KINNEY 777
R.F.D #1 BRADY. TEXAS

ROBERT K. FRY 755
OKAKLAND CALIF

C. E. BRADLEY 708
404 PREUSSER ST
SAN ANGLEO TEXAS [End Page 403]

J. I. ORR. 862
R.R. #3 ROSSVILLE GEO

STANLEY DEE 709
20. COOPER ST.
YONKERS NEW YORK.

DONALD M. DANSBY 728
208 N. ALAMEDA ST.
CARLSVAD N. MEXICO

Page 135 98

ADDRESSES

<July 23-1944 Kobeyo
Rivitting Section>99

972 Jack O. Warner
709 Stanley Dee
919     Christian
578 G. E. Woolford

958     Whitifield
647 Alford McNaught
617 James Campell
957 Richard Lukins

733 Jimmy M. Guinn.
648 Raymond Hellard [End Page 404]
948 Jame E. Singletary
782 William R. Hardester

991 Scruggs
692 Jesse Armour
781 Peter Mannix
899 H. L Pace

927 Neighfeltt
997 Jack Elkins
989 De Batz
661 Jack Ure

Page 136

641 John Spensce
643 George Windchester
650 Edward Ramshaw
735 Lawrance C Weisdrofer

862 J. I. Orr.
891 Theordore
631 Tommy Lawson
724 Burton Swiger

628 James Gibson
634 John F. Neil
686 Arthor Sutor
651 Philipp Brenen

966 B. C Rushing
728 Donald M Dansby.
831 Clyde Waldrip
621 Francis Cleary. [End Page 405]

Page 137

779 Claude Likens
808 Vert Gray
803 John Feldt.
903 E. K Kluemper
642
778 Harvey D. King.
619 William Reed
595 William Reid
892
626 John Cook
887
840

A Berkley
9 Dixon Ave—Glascow
Scotland

Howard H Conley
1744, 1st Ave
San Diego Cal.

Meral G. Reuter
Twin Valley—Minn.

Page 138

W. Levy
114 Kiakcaldy Rd. Maxwell Pk. Glascow <S.1.> Scot

Fred A. Ludwig
Box 116 D. Salida Colo. [End Page 406]

Conray Eastman
R.F.D #1 Clear field Utah

Earl C. Graham
12312 Ashbury Ave Clev—Ohio

Thomas E. Honeycut
China grove N.C.

Harry. J. Balconis 795
167 Jerry St Newark. N.J.

Grady Rhone
Fox Okla. c/o J. P. Ingram

Page 139

Donald C. Ashman
3018 East Miltonia Ave
Youngstown Ohio.

J. B Morris
Cayuca Texas

Jack M. Guttings
133 Ravine St.
Mango Jct. Ohio

Harold Wallen
Norcatur Kans

Joseph Drisler 783
237 Richland St
Kingston PA. [End Page 407]

Doreen Bruce
Box 445 Ranger Texas

Page 140

Austin G Karr
1236 South Carson
Tulsa Okla

C. F O'Bryant 730
800 West Sycamore
Independance Kan

Donholm K Scott
50 Park Rd
Hunters hill Sidney Aust

Jimmy L Guinn 733
Freer Texas

Jake Ford 761
653 Huntington Ave
San Bruno Calif.

D. H Crowder 807
RFD 2 Box 68
Charleston West Va.

Page 141

Everett R Bell 797
2822 South 35th St
Omaha NeBR.
c/o Ha Masun [End Page 408]

Casimir J. Domanski
Gen Del Detroit Mich

Jess A Bartlett
Deer trail Colo

Tom Allender
2710 Hood St. Dallas Texas

Bill Collier
72nd St Jackson Heights
Long Island N.Y.

Bill Thomasson
RFD Box 64
Porterville Calif.

Page 142

Earl H. Gaskin
Boaz R.F.D. 1
Ala

John R. McShane
Springfield Center
Syracuse New York.

Andrew Thomson
359 Mathieson St.
SS. Glasgow C-5 Scot.

F. W. Chamberlin
4 Townshend Rd
Richmonds Surrey
England [End Page 409]

c/o Straits Steamship <Co.>
Singapore S.S.

Charles C. Cala fato
2025 Calemant St.
Brooklyn New York.

Page 143

A. W. Creese
31 Fellows St
Kewu Melbourne Austri

D. H. Donnelly
14 The Loaning. Kirkingtilloch.
Dumbraton Shire
Scotland

Bill Wall
Hamilton Texas100

E. Brown
44 Hendon Valley Rd.
Sunder lend Co
Durham Eng.

Bill Isett
5 Fair Veiew Penxgraig
CGlamorcanshire
South Whales Eng.
Great Britain [End Page 410]

Page 144

Clifton Carpenter 799
R. R. Morins Add.
Danville Ill.

John Feldt. 803
104 Val Monte St
Banning Calif.

T
Thomas IJ. George
693
508 South Jackson
Al Dorado Spgs Mo.

Jos. L. Fritzel 7987
917 N. Monroe St.
Baltd. Md.

Ethor Chaves 802
4200 Brooklyn Ave. Los Angeles Calif.

Albert E Moss Jr.
Maple Lodge farm
Linesville Penna.

Page 145

Men who died101 [End Page 411]

Earl C. Pillsburry 770
c/o Elmer C. Pillsbury
Entiat Wash—State

CJess Armour 692—
Delta Colo. R. #2. Box 143

Jack Elkins 997
Oakesdale Wash.

Burton Swiger
Ashley W. Va.

Ralph D Vesper 1335
W. 3rd Ave Durango Colo.

Clifford A. Smokey Martenez
Las Cruses New Mex

Edward A. Barniskis
1025 E. Moyomensbry Ave
Phila Penna.

Page 146

Frank R. Dooley 753
421 Milton Ave
Portland Oregon

Melvin L. Cooley
Penrose Colo.

Frank E. Ridder 771.
Franklin Ill RR. #2 [End Page 412]

Felipe Peroza 773
116 East 108th St. NY—N.Y.

Edwin W. Olson 774
Cloolo. Springs Colo c/o F. S. Thompson

Mike Cordova 8021
119 S. 1st Motroe Colo.

L
Lawrance A. Weisdorfer
Roy New Mexico 735

Page 147

Millard A. Gray
Olney. Texas Box 385

Frank J. Dice
Pennsburg Pa.

J. G. Taylor Jr.
P.O. Box 27. Kinston N. Co.

Laurence. E. Waugh
514 Olpp Ave
Coloumbus Ohio.

Dave Brengel
744. N. Cass St
Milwaukee Wisc.

Jack Falker
1702 Filbert St
Frisco Calif [End Page 413]

Marvin Shapiro
325 W. Hackbury St
San Antonio Texas

Page 148

Frank Bartis
197 chestnut st
Brooklyn New York.

Spencer E. Hewitt
1205—12th St
San Diego Cal.

B. C Rusching Jr. 966
Harresville Miss R. #1

Michael Henet
1212 11th St. Rock Springs WYo.

H. L "Dusty". Pace 899
226 B. St
Roseville Calif

E. H Kluemper 903
501 West 9th St
Jasper Ind.

Page 149

John L. Koan
510 Lincoln place
Highland Park Illinois [End Page 414]

Floyd. L. Perryman
Route 3 Shawnee Okla.

Walter Maddock
21926 South Western Ave
Torrance Calif.

R
Robert Dorsey Merrells
Mason W. Va.

William T. Dewey
7 off. Bolton St
New Castle New South Wales
Australia

G. E. Woodford 578
200 Burley Rd
Leeds 4. Yorkshire Scott.

End102

Pages 176-177 103

Page 175 104 [End Page 415]

Japanese Nomber

*In each instance in which Likens wrote "KEL," "KU" would be correct.
1 ITCHI 30 SAN-JEW
2 NE 40 SHE-JEW
3 SAN 50 GO-JEW
4 SHE 60 ROKEL*-JEW
5 GO 70 NONA-JEW
6 ROKEL* 80 HATCHI-JEW
7 SCHITI 90 KEW-JEW
8 HATCHI 100 YAKEL
9 KUE 1000 SEN
10 JEW
11 JEW ITHCI
12 JEW-NE
13 JEW-SAN
14 JEW-SHE
15 JEW-GO
16 JEW-ROKEL*
17 JEW-SHITE
18 JEW-HATHI
19 JEW-KEW
20 NE-JEW
21 NE-JEW-ITCHI

Page 174

Read105
Claude Likens106

1944 Punished for not
Soluting a Jap guard. I [End Page 416]

No description available
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Likens studied and recorded both the written and spoken Japanese language, as this chart of English words, kanji script, and phonetic Japanese pronunciations indicates. Morse code on the bottom half of the page shows the diversity of Likens's mental exercises; other pages display his ventures into Latin, German, Dutch, and Italian. KHS Collections

[End Page 417]

was made to hold 2
buckets of water at
attention for 8 hrs. fainted
Serval times in the hot sun
Severe pain in elbows
and was given half ration
because I could not do
my work.

DUTCH NOUMBER.107

Page 173

Read108

1945 punished for picking
up a discarded orange
while walking to work. Beaten
badly at the camp and
was put in a genya
a box to short to stand
lay down or sit. I'm
in a crouch position for
9 days—one rice bowl
and cup a water per day
The fifth day I had
taken pneu—and in a
coma until a British officer
demanded the Jap to release
me. they thought I was
dead. I could not walk
or move for over two
weeks [End Page 418]

Officer begged food and
Medicine to get me back to
health.

Hindu Stunnie
Noumbers109

Page 172 110

* Not a recognizable Japanese character. **Likens probably meant to write チ for the TYA, TYU, and TYO characters.

A

I

U

E

SU

SE

SO

KA

KI

KU

KE

KO

SA

TSU

TE

TA

CHI

TO

NA

NI

NU

NO

HA

HI

HU

HE

HO
AM

MI
* MO

ME

MO

YA

l

YU

YE

YO

A

O

RA

RI

RU

RE

WA

I

U

I
E

RO

SHE

KA

KI

KU

KE

KO

SA

SI

TSU

SE

SO

TA

CHI

TSU

TE

TO
ナメ
NA

HI
*
HE

HO

AM

MI

MU

ME

MO

YA
*
YU

YE

YO

RA

RI

RU

RE

RO
*
WA

NI
リャ
RYA
リュ
RYU
リョ
RYO
キ*
KYA
キュ
KYU
キョ
KYO
ツt
SYA
シュ
SYU
ショ
SYO
キャ**
TYA
キュ**
TYU
キョ**
TYO
ニャ
NYA
ニュ
NYU
ニョ
NYO
ヒ*
HYA
ヒュ
HYU
ヒョ
HYO
ミャ
MYA
ミュ
MY
ミョ
MYO

PA

PI

PU

PE

PO

BA

BI

BU

BE

BO

DA

ZI

ZU

DE

DO

ZA

ZI

ZU

ZE

ZO

GA

GI

GU

GE

GO
*

[End Page 419]

Page 171 111

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0112

Page 170 113

*The figures that Likens wrote here are not recognizable as Japanese characters.
TOBACCO
タバコ
CUT OUT
KI RU
キル
Stupid Fool
BA CA RO
バカロ
NOW
E-MO
イマ
C0OL
BA
バカ
GAS
ガス
*
アイスクリ
ICE CREAM
GOOD
YO RO SHE
ヨロシ
WHAT
NONIE
ナイ
SYOKO
OFFICER
ショコ
YOKOHAMA
ヨコハマ
TOKYO
トコヨ
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0

a .- L .-.. W .-- 9 ----.114
B -… M -- X -..- 10 -----
c .-. N -. Y -.--
d -.. O --- Z --..
e . P .--. 1 .----
f ..-. Q --.- 2 ..---
G - - . R .-. 3 …--
h …. S … 4 ….-
I . . T - 5 …..
j .--- U ..- 6 -….
K -.- V …- 7 --..
8---..

[End Page 420]

Page 169

ONO NAI—I SAY.
EMO NAN GE DESKA
     What TIME IS IT.

AH
KA
SA
TA
NA115

Page 168

NIPPON English116
abunai Dangerous
ageru lift. Present Raise
akai Red
akeru To Open
amme Rain
anata You
aoi Blue
arau To Wash
arigata Thank you.
aku There is to Be
asa morning
asi leg
asobu Play
astah Tomorrow
atama head
atarasi Fresh—new
atto Later
atui Hot—thick
atumaru Gather
Banzi Hurrah
Butano Pig
Dare who
Dare To take out send

[End Page 421]

Page 167

Nippon English
Dekiru To Be Able
Den Po Telegram
Densya Street Car
Denwa Telephone
Doku where
Dore Which
E Picture
Eki Station
Enphue Pencil
Gakko School
Gadtu Month
Ginko Bank
Gohan Meal
Hi Fly
Hairu To enter
Hanna Flower
" Nose
Hari Needle
Hasimi scissors
Hasi Bridge
Heya Room
Hi- Sun
Hi- Tires
Higasi East

[End Page 422]

Page 166

Nippon English
Hikoki Airplane
Hiru Afternoon
Hito Human
Ho Cannon
Hoko Fork.
Honto Real
Hun Minute
Huni Ship
Nie No.
Ikura How much
inki Ink.
Inu Dog.
Iremono Container
Isu Chair
Isya Doctor
Itai Painful
Ito thread
itu When
Ka mosquetto
Kaisya Bussiness Firm
Kagi Key
Kaku To write
Kami Papper

Page 165

Nippon English
Kad Face
Kasi Cake Candy
Katai Hard
Katu To win
Kau To Buy
Kawa River
Kaze Wind
Keisatu Police Station
Kenpei M.P.
Ki Tree wood
Kiroi Yellow
Kippu Ticket
Kirai Hatred
Kirei Beautiful
Kiru Cut
Kiru To put on
Kisya Train
Kita North
Kittu Stamp
Kobbi Factory コビ
Koe Voice
Koko Here
Kore This

[End Page 423]

Page 164

Nippon English
Kori Ice
Kosireru Prepare
Ko Wareru To Breathe
Kudasai Please
Kuroi Black
Kuru To come
Kusa Grass
Kusuri Medicine
Kutu Shoe
Kutusita Socks
Kyodai Brother
Kyokai Church
mado Window
mae Front
mati Town
matti Wait
naka inside
namae name
nanae What
naosu Repair
nako cat
neku Sleep Stay in bed
niku meat
nipponzin Nippon people

[End Page 424]

Page 163

Nippon English
Niru To Boil
no of
nomu Drink
noru Ride on
nugu put off
obi Bell
okaine money
okiru To get up
okiru To get up
okusan Wife
okyakusan Guest
omoi Heavy important
onna Woman
onazi Same
oriru To get down
otoko Man Coposing woman
otosan Father
San Mr. Mrs. Miss
Sato Sugar
Sazi Spoon
Seititan coal
Sekiyo Petroleum
Serren Soap

[End Page 425]

Page 162

Nippon English
Sen Thousand
Senso War
Sensya Tank
Sigato Work
Simeru To shut close
Sinbun Newspaper
Sinu To Die
Salt
Sirai White
Sita Underneeth
Soku There
Soke That
Soto outside
Sozi Sweeping
Sozisuru To sweep
Suicyo Carribou
Suki Fondness
Sukasi Few little
Suru To do
Suwaru To set down
Syasen Photograph
Syatu Shirt
Syoko Officer

[End Page 426]

Page 161

Nippon English
Syuzin Husband Boss
Taityo commander
Takai High—Tall
Takucan much
Tomago egg
Taoru Towel
Tasiukeru To help.
Tatu Stand-up
megi. muke migi. Rt. turn
Hiare muki Hidari Lt. turn
a
Maware migi. About turn
Buntai to mare Halt
Migi muki mare Susume Right wheel117
Hidare muki mae Susume left turn118
Kazi. All patients
Shizu Kany Shiru Be Quite
Bushi Okhure. Put on Cap
Kotsuchie Kui Come here
Syui okiru Put on coat
Kaki ashi Double

[End Page 427]

Page 160

Latin119

A "Forsan et hoec olim
meminiss Iub vabit120
Perchangce heareafter
it will be delightful
to Remember these things

Ad. Infinitum—Withend
ad. Libitum At Pleasure
to any extent
Ad. Nauseam. Until disgusted.
Ad. Valorem According
to value.
Ad. Valorem Duty. A %
of Market Value
Alias other wise
Alibi. Elsewhere
A memide. Honorable
Satisfactory.

Page 159 121

Greetings my Dear flock. Ye are
my sheeps whom Im pleased so often
My's I think so Well now turn unto
page 234 in the green book
find it yourselves in the red one. [End Page 428]

Now there once lived a comely
youth named AIVEHADIT,122 Son of
a Sailor who sayeth unto himself
Why should I waste away my
youth. Lo! I will go unto old
Eedshead! My father and
say "Father." give unto me
my chave of Littlewood Tote
that I may go unto the Red
lights in the city and make
Whoopee.

Where upon his Father
answered him saying. Son,
all that I have is mine.
Here's fourpence go and get
your self a haircut. "And
it came to pass that Adabin
thenite rallied forth unto
the City laden with Duresc
Rubber wares. Where he
spent his money in a
riotous living. M'yes I

Page 158

think so. And on the following
morning he woke up Destitute
along side a [illegible].123 And
he was so Hungry that he
would fain have filled his
belly with the husks that [End Page 429]
the pips did give unto the
troops. So he sayeth unto
himself Lo. I will go unto
my Father and say Father
you old [illegible]124 <x ? s. & 1> I have spent
your money <fourpence> and am with
out a haircut, make me as
one tired sirvant

And when he was yet afar
off. His father saw him and
ran towards him & fell one
his neck nearley breaking the
Basket. Son! Son. he cried
Im glad youve returned you're
in time for the 7 veil's Dance
which will be performed by
Countess Nickersroff." And
he turneth to the second
son named Ivadit. Son get
ye hence and prepare a

Page 157

fatted [illegible]125 sheep tis must
that we should make Whoopee
"Father"! essclaimed Gvadit
What is a fatted virgin sheep
OH. there Nit wit "exclaimed
his Father "a fatted virgin
sheep is the sheep that can
run the fastest. M'yes I think
so. [End Page 430]

And it came to pass that the
elders were seated round the
feasting table on Orange
Bosces. And one of the elders
stoop up and toasted Gvadit
in the vilest of beers where
upon that worthy sprung
to his feet, his face as
bold as an ass "I dont
want your Friggy Duff.
you can jam it—on my
brothers plate. Now this
caused his father to laugh
and to the servants, because
they had to and Forty

Page 156

thousand Ladies present
pulled out their [illegible]126 and
[illegible].127 "M, yes I think so
Now this caused Gvadit to
be cast into the Lions den
And it came to pass this
his father visited Gvadit
and when he was yet afar
off Gvadit cried in a loud
voice. Whom has cause me
to be thrown into this Hole
What hole cried his father
Rissolis replied Gvadit [End Page 431]
and the drinks were on
his father. M'yes I think so
End.

Page 155 128

Page 154 129

Note on war in P.I

War Declared Dec 8. 1941
Inguaged in three Magor
Battles. One—Dec 24-1941
Carbon River and one
the Lin gaian Gulf.
one Battle on the West
Coast of Battaan Bagaac
March 21 1942.
one Magor Battle The
Main and last line
at orrionn near
the Bagaac Road.
Fall of Battaan April 8
1942. I then swam the
Bay to Corregidor April
9-1942. I was sent
to Drum130 April 10-1942
Fall of Drum and Forti [End Page 432]
fied Islands May May 6-1942.
As prisioner <of> war
sent <to> Nancy Booe-Wa-Wa
May 7-1942 P. I.
Left Wa-Wa May 18-1942131

No description available
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View full resolution

Promoted upon his return to the States at war's end (like all survivors of the 192nd), Staff Sergeant Likens wears new stripes on his sleeves; the U.S. Presidential Unit Citation (PUC) badge over his right pocket; and service ribbons over his left pocket (Defense of the Philippines on top). The badge's two oak leaf clusters symbolize the 192nd Tank Battalion's receipt of the American PUC twice as well as a third award, the Philippine Presidential Unit Citation, each for exceptional valor under extremely difficult and dangerous conditions. KHS Collections

[End Page 433]

Page 153

arrived in Manila Same
day. at Billi Bid Prison132
Then was sent to Caban
na Cawaan May 26, 1942133
Later was selected to
go to Japan. Left P.I
Sept 18-1942. Arrived
in Taiwan or Formosa
Sept 26-1942
Left Taiwan Nov 13-1942
Arrived in Yokohamma
Nov 28-1942134 Started
work for Mitcie Bitsie135 [End Page 434]
Heavy Industries Dec
4-1942 We stoped work
for Mitchi Bitshe April
13-1945.136 We then Worked
3 week on a farm. We
a preparing to leave this
Camp for Another Camp.

Page 152

Traveling is what you need
he said. "Why not try the
Philippines.

So now Im here and the
war is on
I never would have guessed
That this small place Could
mean somuch
"Flash" Motors in the west"

There was a time here on
this rock. [End Page 435]
When life was full of cheer
For the main concern was
how to pay our montly
bill of beer.

But now the club is Bombed
the beer is gone.
We're in the Bomb proof
Pressed.
Quite—Silence There it
goes again

Page 151

There's smotors in the west.

But McArthor's137 Boys will
carry on
And each will do his
best
To throw a great big
monkey wrench
In those Motors in the West.

Moon over Malaya

Palm trees swaying in the sunset
Casting their Shadows over the sea
What dear will meat us in the Moonlit
Stay awhile and listen to me [End Page 436]

A moon was shining over Malaya
Stars shinning down from above
Girls in their sarones and Kabays138
and the Kampangs sing their song
of love

You can hear terrang Bulan139
OH "Lereina songs140 their Mother
sang in days gone by

Page 150

From Lenag to Ipok and
Melacca141
You can hear those
Enchanting Lulladies
Oh the Guitars They are
strumming in the Moonlight
An the Echo of those chomes
Never die
A moon was shining
over Malaya
And to think weve got
to leave By & By.

End

Poems142 [End Page 437]

Afterword

The Likens Journal ends abruptly with this poem. A few weeks after the camp area's devastation in the American firebombing raid of April 15, 1945, Yokohama I-D was closed and its U.S. POWs were moved to Omori Camp in Tokyo, where they were liberated on November 21, 1945.

Private First Class Likens returned to the U.S., and received a promotion to staff sergeant. He was discharged May 3, 1946. Likens worked as an electronics engineer for the Atomic Energy Commission in Savannah, Georgia, until his retirement in the 1970s, when he returned to Kentucky. He lived the rest of his days, unmarried, in the commonwealth—at West Point, Hardin County, from 1984 until his death on December 12, 1996. Claude "Leather" Likens was buried in Bethany Memorial Cemetery, Louisville, Kentucky. 143 [End Page 438]

Kelly E. Crager

Kelly E. Crager, PhD, is the head of the Oral History Project at the Vietnam Center and Archive at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. He is the author of Hell under the Rising Sun: Texan POWs and the Building of the Burma-Thailand Death Railway (2008). He has contributed a chapter on Texan POWs of the Japanese for Texans and War (2012), edited by Alexander Mendoza and Charles David Grear as well as numerous other publications on military history and oral history. Dr. Crager earned his PhD at the University of North Texas in 2005 and then taught courses in military history and the history of American foreign relations in the department of history at Texas A&M before taking over the Oral History Project at Texas Tech in 2008.

James Russell Harris

James Russell Harris is the senior associate editor of the Register.

Elizabeth J. Van Allen

Elizabeth J. Van Allen is the associate editor.

Footnotes

1. The historical literature of the battle for the Philippines, the Bataan Death March, and the Allied prisoner-of-war experience is voluminous. The best general account of the battle for the Philippines is Louis Morton's The Fall of the Philippines (1953; repr., Washington, D.C., 2004). Donald J. Young's The Battle of Bataan (1992; repr., Jefferson, N.C., 2009) is a detailed look at the happenings on the Bataan Peninsula. The Bataan Death March appears in minute focus in Stanley L. Falk's classic, Bataan: The March of Death (1962; repr., New York, 1989), as well as in Donald Knox's Death March: The Survivors of Bataan (1981; repr., New York, 1983). Individual accounts by survivors are also numerous, and some of the best of these memoirs are Lester I. Tenney's My Hitch in Hell: The Bataan Death March (1995; repr., Washington, D.C., 2008); William Edwin Dyess's Bataan Death March: A Survivor's Account (1944; repr., Lincoln, Nebr., 2002); and James Bollich's Bataan Death March: A Soldier's Story (2003; repr., Gretna, La., 2005). The best one-volume, comprehensive scholarly work on Allied prisoners of the Japanese during World War II is Gavan Daws's masterful account, Prisoners of the Japanese: POWs of World War II in the Pacific (1994; repr., New York, 2007). Another excellent account is E. Bartlett Kerr's Surrender and Survival: The Experience of American POWs in the Pacific, 1941-1945 (New York, 1985).

2. For studies detailing the history of the Harrodsburg Tankers, one must first consult James Russell Harris's "The Harrodsburg Tankers: Bataan, Prison, and the Bonds of Community," The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 86 (1988): 230-77. Primary-source materials are also readily available in the collections of the Kentucky Historical Society, especially the numerous oral history interviews conducted with survivors of the Harrodsburg Tankers in the Survivors of the Bataan Death March Oral History Collection. Another incredibly valuable collection of oral history interviews can be found in the Colonel Arthur L. Kelly American Veterans Oral History Project, 1983-2001 at the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, special collections, University of Kentucky Libraries, Lexington, Kentucky.

3. Alvin C. Poweleit, Kentucky's Fighting 192nd Light G.H.Q. Tank Battalion: A Saga of Kentucky's Part in the Defense of the Philippines (Newport, Ky., 1981), 88.

4. Mike Dryden interview with Kelly Crager, October 23, 2011, in Kelly Crager's private collection. Mr. Dryden is Likens's nephew; John F. Likins interview by Russell Harris, May 15, 2013. Mr. Likins is a genealogist of the Likins, Likens, Lykins family group; U.S. City Directories, 1821-1989, AncestryLibrary.com, http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?ssrc=pt_t22275656_p... ; 1940 U.S. Census, Jefferson County, Kentucky, AncestryLibrary.com, ibid., rank=1&new=1&MS...; U.S. World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938-1946, AncestryLibrary.com, ibid.

5. Each member of the Likens household in Jefferson County, Kentucky, wrote to Claude, who recorded receiving seventeen letters from family and friends while he was a POW. His father, William "Henry" Henderson Likens (1891-1964), a mechanic at the Kosmosdale Portland Cement Plant, wrote a letter Claude received May 30, 1945. Mother Pearl Likens (1895-1990), a carpenter at the cement plant, sent three missives received in 1943 and 1944. "Mother and Dad" penned letters which were received once a year, 1943-45. Sister Ruby (1919-97), who had married in 1935 and lived in Anderson, Indiana, mailed two letters received in December 1943. The one letter recorded from Sister Pauline (1923-91), then in high school, also reached Claude in December 1944. Claude received three letters from youngest sister Geraldine (1932-97), then in elementary school, in December 1944 and March 1945. Lavenia Perry, "dreamed about" Claude, wrote often, and sent "her love" according to a family correspondent, although Likens did not record receiving any of her letters. She was a single twenty-three-year-old "Beauty Operator" in Meade County, adjacent to Jefferson County, along the same Dixie Highway/U.S. 60 on which the Likenses lived. 1940 U.S. Census, Jefferson County, Kentucky, AncestryLibrary.com, Http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?rank=1&new=1&MSA...; 1930 U.S. Census, Jefferson County, Kentucky, ibid.; 1940 U.S. Census, Meade County, Kentucky, ibid.; 1930 U.S. Census, Meade County, Kentucky, ibid.

6. Dr. Doug Slaymaker, associate professor of Japanese, Japan studies program, department of modern and classical languages, literatures, and cultures, University of Kentucky, in discussion with the editors, May 1, 2013.

7. Inside the back cover of his four-inch by six-inch address book, Likens wrote this title page in bold letters of black ink and pencil over the black-ink phrase printed here as an epigraph above the title. All these words overlay a faded black-ink list of names. The numeral 779 was Likens's ID number assigned to him by his Japanese captors in the Yokohama POW camp. These three-digit numbers appear in lists of POW names recorded in subsequent entries throughout the diary.

8. The first portion of this page up to "I am writting" is written in pencil with freshening in blue ink.

9. This portion of the page is torn, obscuring the text.

10. The address and dateline of this letter are written in pencil with freshening in black ink.

11. Likens wrote this list of the letters he received, starting with this portion of page 7 and continuing through page 8, in black ink.

12. The top of this page through the salutation of the letter from Likens's mother is written with pencil and overwritten in black ink.

13. Address, dateline, and salutation written in pencil with freshening in black ink.

14. The edge of this line of the page is torn.

15. The edge of this line of the page is torn.

16. Pages 15 through 17 are blank.

17. These pages are marked in blue pencil with simple Japanese characters and mathematic figuring dealing with money.

18. The list of names and addresses on pages 20 through 24 appear to have been entered by each individual, as the handwriting varies with each entry.

19. This address, written in Japanese characters, would have been rotated ninety degrees and would read vertically top to bottom, as follows: Tokyo, city district, family name, given name.

20. There were no female prisoners in Yokohama 1-D. The women listed are POWs' contacts in the United States.

21. Following a double underline, this portion of the page was written in black ink with the journal inverted.

22. During World War II, an eastern district of Tokyo was the prefecture Shinagawa. Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, where Likens was imprisoned, comprised a contiguous, densely packed urban landscape.

23. Mitsubishi Industries regularly used prisoner-of-war labor in their many factories during World War II. Likens and the other POWs at Yokohama 1-D labored for the corporation's naval subsidiary, Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Yokohama Ship-building Company. But Allied POWs here and in other Japanese camps were not model prisoner-workers. Sabotage by the prisoners was common and not always minor in scale or effect.

In a similar situation at a nearby camp of the Osaka Group, some of Likens's comrades from Company D, 192nd Tank Battalion, struggled to build a crude, stone dry dock at Tanagawa Branch Camp 4-B for Tobishima-gumi Construction Company. For months, Sergeants Morgan French, Marcus A. Lawson, Elzie Anness, William "Doc" Sparrow, and Private David A. Dowell, along with the rest of the camp's prisoners, some of whom were engineers, struggled to complete the project, despite dwindling prisoner health and numbers. In the war's final months, when less and less work could be forced from the ever-more feeble prisoners, the Japanese discovered that the dock—by secret POW design—was barely too short to accommodate seagoing vessels. Many prisoners were beaten, but the project was abandoned.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Yokohama Ship-building Dispatch Camp (Tokyo I-D), POW Camps in Japan Proper, POW Research Network Japan, 18, http://www.powresearch.jp/en/archive/camplist/index.html#Yokohama; Tanagawa Branch Camp (Osaka 4-D), 29, ibid. Osaka; biographies of French, Anness, Lawson, Sparrow, and Dowell, Company D, Men of the 192nd, Proviso East High School Bataan Commemorative Research Project, http://wwwproviso.k12.il.us/Bataan%20Web. (This ongoing project in the Illinois hometown of the 192nd's Company B has amassed a large database of biographies, interviews, photographs, and other data on the battalion during the war; hereafter Proviso Roster); Morgan French Interview, April 25, 1985, Veterans of World War II Oral History Project, Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries, Lexington, Kentucky; Marcus A. Lawson interview, March 16, 1961, 12-15, Harrodsburg Tank Battalion in the Philippines: Survivors of the Bataan Death March, special collections, Kentucky Historical Society Collections, Frankfort, Kentucky (hereafter Harrodsburg Tankers Oral History Project); see Linda Goetz Holmes, Unjust Enrichment: How Japanese Companies Built Postwar Prosperity Using American POWs (Mechanicsburg, Pa., 2000), chap. 9 on Mitsubishi Industries' "empire." See notes 87 and 93 for transfer of Company D men.

24. Likens corrected the spelling of "buy" in black ink. The "m" in "gum" is overwritten in black ink.

25. Likens wrote "count off" with an arrow pointing down to Bango in black ink. The word Bango refers to the process by which prisoners shouted out their number for the Japanese guards to ensure that all prisoners on a given work detail were present or accounted for.

26. Likens wrote the ampersand over this "a" in black ink.

27. Likens corrected the "a"'s in this line with ampersands in black ink.

28. Likens's word, yas sume, refers to yasumi, Japanese for vacation.

29. The edge of this line of the page is torn.

30. The "g string" refers to a long piece of cloth that many prisoners wrapped around the pelvic area. This strip of fabric was often the only clothing that a POW had to wear after his U.S. military uniform had completely worn out.

31. All capital letters but written in script.

32. Tenko was a type of roll call in which the Japanese ordered POWs to count off their ID numbers. This process occurred many times each day, so the guards could keep track of their prisoners. See Bango in note 25.

33. Kiotsuke or "Stand at attention."

34. Likely kaizen, which translates in this instance as "satisfactory."

35. Prisoners routinely referred to their Japanese guards by nicknames. "Groucho" could have been a generic name for all guards, or it could have referred to a specific guard.

36. Kirei, or beautiful. In this context, Likens is likely referring to the response by a guard to an acceptable count of prisoners.

37. Likens applied his signature at the end of the poems on pages 21 through 50 in black ink.

38. Page 52 is blank.

39. The header and the first three addresses on this page are written in black ink.

40. Alf Sherman's address is written in another hand.

41. The first portion of this page is written in blue ink. An arrow points from the word "Read," written in blue ink, to the passage that Likens wrote in pencil script on the bottom portion of the page.

42. "WHO DIED" is written in pencil and overwritten in blue pencil.

43. Page 61 is blank.

44. Likens wrote the header and the name and address on this page in pencil and then freshened them in black ink. He records R. H. Ames's name and address again in a more complete list of newcomers on pages 66 through 68.

45. The names and addresses on pages 63 and 64 appear to have been entered by each individual as the handwriting varies with each entry.

46. Page 65 is blank.

47. This record of Likens's weight, on pages 69 through 71, is recorded in pencil and then overwritten in blue pencil. Except on page 69, the headers are not freshened in blue pencil.

48. This underline is in blue pencil.

49. Between October 1944 and July 1945, Likens's weight is recorded in kilograms and entered in the journal in black ink.

50. Likens transcribed this poem in pencil and freshened it with blue ink.

51. The word "Son" is refreshed in red pencil.

52. Likens underlined "Kipling" in pencil, overwrote it in red pencil, and placed parenthesis around it in red pencil.

53. The poems on pages 77 through 79 are written in pencil script and freshened with blue ink.

54. Likens underlined the title of this poem, "Personality," in blue pencil and placed parenthesis around it in blue pencil.

55. Likens underlined the title of this poem, "The Voyager," in blue pencil and placed parenthesis around it in blue pencil.

56. The word "gates" is written and crossed out only in pencil.

57. Underline in blue pencil.

58. Underline and parenthesis in blue pencil.

59. Written in pencil. Underlined in red pencil.

60. The poem "Adventure" is written in pencil and freshened in black ink.

61. Entered in black ink.

62. This "adverb" by Oliver Wendell Holmes was written in blue pencil.

63. The entries on pages 81 and 82 are entered in either blue or red pencil.

64. In red.

65. "Emerson" is underlined in blue pencil.

66. In blue.

67. In red.

68. In blue.

69. In red.

70. The page header is written in blue ink. The column headers and the English words in the left-hand column, from "Await" to "Bad," are written in pencil and refreshed in blue ink.

71. va is circled.

72. a is circled.

73. va is circled.

74. ad is circled.

75. a is circled.

76. s is circled.

77. Blank.

78. Inverted and written in black ink with pencil notes. This is a chording for six different songs, apparently to use on a guitar or similar instrument. The songs are as follows: "In the Mood" in Bb; "Shine on Harvest Moon" in Ab; "Maggie" in F; "Blue Hawaii," "South American Way" in E; and "South American Joe" in C. Each song has seven squares with chords noted in them.

79. First entry on this page was freshened in black ink.

80. Page header is in black ink.

81. Page header is in black ink.

82. The page header was written in black ink. The first two entries were written in pencil and freshened with black ink.

83. Page header is in black ink.

84. Likens wrote the entries on this page in pencil and then freshened them in black ink.

85. "Co" is written in pencil.

86. Likens wrote the entries on this page in pencil and then freshened them in black ink.

87. Sergeant Morgan French, Private Maynard Cravens, Private Jabe C. Smith, and Private First Class Earl Fowler were members of Likens's Company D, 192nd Tank Battalion. Other surviving records show that some of the men were at Tanagwa 4-B near Osaka, Japan, or at Hoten Camp in Munkden, Manchuria. Perhaps transfers occurred for which there are not extant records. See notes 23 and 93.

88. The first two entries on this page were written in pencil with freshening in black ink. The second entry and the name in the third entry were written in pencil with freshening in blue pencil. The rest of the page was entered in pencil with freshening in black ink.

89. Written in blue ink.

90. The names and addresses on pages 123 through 134 were entered in blue ink, with Japanese prisoner ID numbers and some corrections probably added later in pencil.

91. "1113 S. 7th St" is a correction written in pencil.

92. "1914 Webster" is a correction written in pencil.

93. Private David Dowell from Irvington, Breckinridge County, Kentucky, was a member of Likens's Company D, 192nd Tank Battalion. Surviving records show Dowell and several other Company D men at the prison camp, Tanagawa 4-B, near Osaka. Perhaps transfers occurred for which no records are extant. See notes 23 and 87.

94. "Clarkson" is a correction written in pencil.

95. Penciled number refreshed in blue ink and circled.

96. Penciled number circled in blue ink.

97. Penciled number circled in blue ink.

98. Page header written in black ink. Prisoner ID numbers were written in pencil and refreshed in black ink. The following names—Jack A. Warner, Christian, G. E. Woolford, Richard Lukins, Jimmy M Guinn, H. L Pace, Neighfelt, Jack Elkins, DeBatz, and Jack Ure—were all written in pencil and refreshed in black ink.

99. Interlineated in pencil, probably added later.

100. This entry is written in pencil and refreshed in black ink.

101. Page header in black ink.

102. The entries on the next 27 pages of the journal were entered from near the back of the journal to page 150, while the journal was inverted. For the sake of readability, this edited version of the journal follows Likens's writings as he entered them, and the page order tracks backward from 177 to 150.

103. The entries on the last two pages of the journal are stuck together on the inner half of each page and could not be separated without causing damage to the journal. Both pages contain entries of Arabic numerals followed by their phonetic pronunciations spelled out in German and Italian. The entries move from 1 through 21, and then by tens through 100, and end with 1,000, as are the entries on page 175.

104. Likens wrote this page in pencil and refreshed it with blue ink.

105. Written in blue ink, with an arrow pointed down to the text that follows on the page.

106. Faded signature written in black ink.

107. Inverted at the bottom of the page, written in pencil and overwritten in blue ink.

108. Written in blue ink, with an arrow pointed down to the text that follows on the page.

109. Inverted at the bottom of the page.

110. This chart appears to be an elementary attempt to replicate the Japanese syllabary. It includes the sorts of errors that are common to beginning learners of Japanese. These include letters out of order, strokes written backwards, and pronunciations that do not correlate to the written letter.

111. A chart denoting Arabic and kanji numerals 1 to 10 in script.

112. A "10" should be listed in the last column of the first row of this chart instead of a "0."

113. The top half of this page contains translations of common English words and Arabic numerals to Japanese and phonetic equivalents when available. The second half of the page is a chart which denotes Morse code conversion.

114. The Morse Code conversion for the numbers 9 and 10 are written in the right margin.

115. AH, KA, SA, TA, and NA were written in black ink.

116. Likens put column headers on each of these pages of lists of common Japanese words and their English equivalents. However, NIPPON refers to the Japanese people not to the language

117. An arrow points down from muki to "right wheel."

118. Between Hidare and muki, an arrow points down to "left turn."

119. Written in pencil and then overwritten in blue ink.

120. This is a quotation from Vergil's Aeneid, Book 1, line 203. http://wnn.fac.harvard.edu classics/poetry-and-prose/Aeneid. 1:195-207 html.

121. The first two paragraphs on this page are written in pencil with freshening in blue ink.

122. Likens wrote "IVEHADIT" in pencil and freshened the word in black ink.

123. This word has been crossed out heavily in black ink

124. This word has been crossed out heavily with black ink, but it is likely "bastard."

125. This word has been crossed out heavily with black ink, but it is likely "virgin."

126. This word has been crossed out heavily with black ink, but is likely "tits."

127. Crossed out heavily with black ink.

128. This page is blank.

129. Most of this page was written in pencil with freshening in blue ink. Likens did not overwrite the last three lines

130. Fort Drum was a fortified island at the mouth of Manila Bay. Equipped with four 14-inch naval guns in turrets, two hundred crewmen, and 36-foot-thick concrete walls, plus a superstructure and ship-shaped casement, this so-called "concrete battleship" was formidable. Fort Drum and artillery positions on Corregidor and other islands fired on Bataan and Japanese forces headed for Manila Bay until the final surrender. Well-stocked with food, medicine, and ammunition, the crews at Fort Drum lived in surreal plenty for a brief time. Along with Likens, at least four other men from his Company D, 192nd Tank Battalion, made their way from Corregidor to Fort Drum.

Morgan French interview April 25, 1985, Veterans of World War II Project, UK; John Elmore Sadler interview, March 15, 1961, 3-5, Harrodsburg Tanker Oral History Project, KHS; Maurice "Jack" Wilson interview, March 15, 1961, 8-11 (quote, 8), ibid.; Joe Riley Anness interview, March 19, 1961, 8-11, ibid.; Louis Morton, The Fall of the Philippines, The U. S. Army in World War II (Washington, D.C., 1953), 476, 478, 487, 540, 550, 557.

131. Other Company D men who were taken prisoner at Fort Drum, May 6, 1942, along with Likens, reported that they were moved a few miles to the southern shore of Manila Bay to a dock at Nantabu near the captured U.S. Naval Base at Cavite. After several brutal days breaking rock, all prisoners were transferred to the large Bilibid Prison in Manila.

Likens's statement about leaving "Wa-Wa" on May 18, 1942, may refer to a separate detail—for which no other records survive—of POWs sent to repair the important Wa Wa Dam, a major source of water for Manila, a few miles northeast of the capital city. Wilson interview, 11, Harrodsburg Tankers Oral History Project, KHS; Anness interview, 11-13, ibid., Sadler Interview, 5, ibid.; Claude Likens biography, Proviso Roster.

132. In Manila, Bilibid Prison, an old Spanish facility, housed Allied POWs and served as the main transfer point for prisoner-of-war groups moving about, as well as to and from the Philippines.

133. The largest POW camp in the Philippines, Cabanatuan's peak population of seven thousand included Likens and numerous other Company D survivors. Seventeen Company D men died there.

Wilson interview, 9-10, Harrodsburg Tankers Oral History Project, KHS; Fowler interview, 4-5, ibid.; Lawson interview, 6-7, ibid.; John E. Sadler interview, March 15, 1961, 4, ibid.; Kenneth Hourigan interview, March 15, 1961, 5, ibid.; Morris S. Collier interview, January 11, 1988, Veterans of World War II Project, UK; Field M. Reed Jr., interview, August 13, 1987, ibid.; Harris, "The Harrodsburg Tankers: Bonds of Community," 256-58, 277.

134. The Hell Ship Lima Maru sailed from Manila, September 21, 1942, carrying Likens and three hundred other POWs in its two holds. After two months' holdover in Formosa, the prisoners reached Moji, Japan, in the Dai Nichi Maru and took on prisoners from Singapore. Loaded into the Nagato Maru, the now-1,600 POWs reached Yokohama, November 28, and soon entered Yokohama Prison I-D. Hell Ship Information and Photographs, www.west-point.org/family/japanese-pow/photos.htm; Yokohama I-D . . ., http://www.mansell.com/pow_resources/camplists/tokyo/tok-01D-yokohama.html; List of Hell Ship Voyages in Chronological Sequence of Departure Date, http://www.west-point.org/family/japanese-pow/ShipsNum.htm, 2-3, which lists 173 voyages from various points in Asia to Japan; Official List of Successful POW Transports [Appendix C], in Holmes, Unjust Enrichment, 157-59; see also Van Waterford, Prisoners of the Japanese in World War II (Jefferson, N.C., 1994), 167-68; Gregory Michno, Death on the Hellships: Prisoners at Sea in the Pacific War (Annapolis, Md., 2001); Harris, "The Harrodsburg Tankers: Bonds of Community," 277.

135. In the 1930s, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) was the largest private firm in Japan. It manufactured ships, heavy machinery, airplanes, and railroad cars. MHI merged with Yokohama Dock Company in 1935. In 1942, when Likens began work at Mitsubishi, the corporation's Nagasaki shipyard produced the Musashi, the largest battleship in the world. See Holmes, Unjust Enrichment, chap. 9.

136. During the American firebombing campaign of 1945, Yokohama, Japan's fifth-largest city and a manufacturing center very close to Tokyo, had been hit especially hard in the April 15 raid on the capital city. A May 29 raid by some 450 B-29s focused on Yokohama and burned the main business district along the waterfront, where the POW camp was located. About a third of the city and one thousand civilians were annihilated. Subsequent firebombing raids destroyed 58 percent of Yokohama. Wesley Frank Craven and James Lea Cate, eds., The Army Air Forces in World War II, 7 vols. (Chicago, 1948-58), vol. 5, The Pacific: Matterhorn to Nagasaki, June 1944 to August 1945 (Chicago, 1953), 635, 638-39; Edwin P. Hoyt, Japan's War: The Great Pacific Conflict, 1853-1952 (London, 1987), 391; E. Bartlett Kerr, Flames Over Tokyo: The U.S. Army Air Force's Incendiary Campaign against Japan, 1944-1945 (New York, 1991), 226; Bombing of Tokyo and Other Cities, World War II Database, 1, 2, 4, http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=217.

137. General Douglas MacArthur commanded all U.S. and Filipino forces in the Philippines, 1941-42.

138. These were traditional Malayan dress for women.

139. Terang Bulan was a popular song in Malaya in the early twentieth century.

140. Le Reina songs were popular in the Caribbean in the nineteenth century.

141. Lenan, Ipoh, and Malacca City are important cities and areas in Malaya.

142. Written inverted at the bottom of the page.

143. Kerr, Surrender and Survival, 266-67; History of Yokohama POW Camp, Camp Lists, http://mansell.com/powresources/camplists/tokyo/tok-01D-yokhama . . . ; History of Omori, Tokyo Camp, ibid., camplists/tokyo/omori . . . ; Roster of Americans at Omori, ibid.; Likens Biography, Proviso Roster; Louisville Courier-Journal, December 14, 1996.

Additional Information

ISSN
2161-0355
Print ISSN
0023-0243
Pages
293-438
Launched on MUSE
2013-10-07
Open Access
No
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