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HUMANITIES 535 David Gardner's meticulous research on ;Variety,' Ross Stuart's thoughtful response to 'Summer Festival and Theatres/ Martha Mann and Rex Southgate 's more personal acconnt of 'Amateur Theatre,' Alexander Leggatt's selective but persuasive 'Plays and Players,' and Heather MacCallum's reportage of 'Resources of Theatre History,' are all in themselves complete. Individual chapters begin to resonate as recurring figures appear at different points in the various narratives. Saddlemyer and Plant have drawn together an impressive body of material. As their preface makes clear and as Heather McCallum's closing essay reminds us, however, this is but a partial story of these later stages. In their preface, the editors point out gaps in the wheel, spokes still to come. Specifically, they acknowledge the dangers of historical research where a hierarchy of standards and values is passed from generation to generation, from reviewer to researcher. They acknowledge, for example, that the contributions of women are largely absent from their pages, as is the 'theatre created in non-English immigrant communities, as well as among our Native people and in the Franco-Ontarien community.' McCallum closes her essay with a recommendation she made first in 1973: 'the responsibility of the Canada Council should include the requirement that all funded theatre companies deposit copies of relevant printed documents with an appropriate designated archive.' The two issues, of course, remain interconnected. Without the archival material, the other, absent stages cannot be written and, without more research on the archival material, the wheel will remain incomplete. With the publication of this invaluable resource, Later Stages: Essays in Ontario Theatrefrom the First World War to the 1970s, it is hoped that not only the absent 'adventures' from this province will be written but early and later stages will begin to form the stories of past adventures in other provinces. (DENYSE LYNDE) Bernard Lonergan. Collected Works ofBernard Lonergan. Vol2, Verbum: Word and Idea in Aquinas. Edited by Fredrick E. Crowe and Robert M. Doran University of Toronto Press. xxiv, 320. $65.00 cloth, $24.95 paper Published originally (1946-49) as a series of articles, Verbum sets forth Lonergan's famous and controversial interpretation of Thomas Aquinas's doctrine of the inner or intellectual word (verbum). It is this Thomistic doctrine that became the primary historical source for Lonergan's own 'cognitional theory.' From his student days, Lonergan, though no nominalist, was never an ardent champion of the universal concepts that dominated and anchored Scholastic philosophy. In epistemology, he remained, throughout a long philosophical career, an anti-Platonist, i.e., an anti-conceptualist. In unlocking Aquinas's doctrine of intellectual knowledge , Lonergan took his hermeneutical key from Augustine: the act of 536 LETTERS IN CANADA 1997 understanding (intelligere) and not the nniversal concept is what is cognitionally basic. Lonergan found the same point in Aristotle (De an., III, 7, 431b2): the mind knows a universal form only by intellectually grasping it in a particular image or phantasm. Lonergan called this cognitive grasp 'insight,' which became the title of his most celebrated book. The fundamental mistake of Scholastic conceptualism was to obscure or ignore the very source of the concept, the act of insight. According to Lonergan, the Thomistic notion of insight incorporates Augustinian thought into Aristotle's framework. The latter is cumulatively composed of- moving downwards from the more to the less comprehensive sciences- metaphysics, physics, biology, and psychology. But Aristotle 's psychology 'fails to bring out effectively the essential difference' among plants, animals, and man; hence, Aquinas was required to sublate the Aristotelian conception of soul into Augustine's introspective subject. Aquinas, however, used but did not thematize introspection; it falls to Lonergan, by practising his own 'reflectively elaborated technique' or method, to explicate -naively, a Wittgensteinian would likely say -an 'introspective rational psychology.' In elaborating his anti-Arian doctrine of the divine Trinity, Augustine introspectively discovered in the human mind an inner, pre-linguistic word that derives from and is the cognitive image that corresponds to the thing known. Written or spoken words, which are conventional and vary from language to language, are but the outer expression of this inner word. As Augustine put it, we 'utter what we know' and what...


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