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HUMANITIES 353 meaning but never truly present, for part of the present act remains as yet uncompleted. Arcane (and at times almost occult) as Guillaumist theory may be, Hewson and Bubenik's terminology is, for the most part, quite standard and where it is not, is easily translated; their methods of analysis are careful and scarcely differ from the norm elsewhere; on the whole the Guillaumist framework little intrudes. Indeed theirconclusions (such as that tense in the Indo-European language family developed out of a tenseless, aspect-based system) don't differ much from those reached via other theoretical bases, though they are led to argue, for example, that the difference between the French passe.('sang') and imparfait ('was singing, would sing') is not one of aspect but rather one of tense. To be sure, as is usual with scholarly works, every scholar will find here something to argue with. The scholarship displayed is impressive, and the book, with its masses of data, should serve usefully for many years both as a reference work and as a bibliographical guide, albeit with some gaps and the odd error: Ruiperez's well-known study of Ancient Greek aspect is ignored, the presentation of Zeno Vendler's verb categories is a bit muddled, and at one point we are told that the middle of the seventeenth century is 'just two hundred years ago.' Such occasional lapses do not however detract from a work which would be welcome on the bookshelves not only of scholars of language diachrony, Indo-European, and the semantics oftense and aspect, but of anyone interested enough to inquire into such topics as 'middle voice turbulence/ the semelfactive Aktionsart, the role of tense and aspect in the development of ergative case systems, and, most interesting of alt the surcompose past irrealis of Upper Sorbian. (ROBERT BINNICK) I.M. Zeitlin. Rulers and Ruled: An Introduction to Classical Political Theory from Plato to the Federalists University of Toronto Press. xiv, 206. $16.95 As its title indicates, Zeitlin's book treats not classical, i.e., ancient, political theory but rather classic works of political theory, namely, seminal political writings by Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and the authors of The Federalist Papers. The book is very much an introduction to these texts, and its main purpose may be said to be to encourage study of them by demonstrating that they contain 'valid transhistorical insights' worthy of our sustained attention. Rather than wade into scholarly controversies over their interpretation, Zeitlin allows his chosen texts to speak as much as possible for themselves. He accordingly offers considerable summary of them, along with a commentary that highlights their central themes and raises critical questions for the reader's consideration . His book is therefore most useful as a sort of map for new students of these classics. 354 LEITERS IN CANADA 1997 Zeitlin respects the authors he discusses too much to force them into a framework of his own devising. He carefully follows the twists and turns in his texts, letting them guide him, and each of his eight chapters is fairly independent of the others; he does not approach the authors under consideration as partners in a common enterprise. A clearly discernible argument, though, does unfold in his book: an account of the development of the principles underlying liberal democratic constitutionalism. His first chapter depicts a Plato who never lost his admiration for the Republic's city in speech and the absolute rule of philosopher-kings but who came, especially in the Laws, to recognize the merits of 'a more realistic and practical conception of politics.' Although Plato hardly advocated the politics we practise, Zeitlin presents him as inaugurating a tradition that ultimately did. Not only did Plato defend justice against sophistic attacks on it, but he acknowledged the practical need for the rule of law and for extending the franchise to the ruled. Building on such 'timeless valid principles,' Zeitlin next shows, Aristotle argued more strongly than his teacher for the 'multitude's political participation, and he advocated the 'skilful blending' of social elements into a mixed regime resting on a large middle class. In his third chapter Zeitlin praises Machiavelli for...


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pp. 353-355
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