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HUMANITIES 211 importance of mental activity (subjectivity). Indeed, implicit in Whitehead 's positionis the assumption that, even if nature is an objective fact, it is known by a mental (subjectivistic) process. In any case, in Whitehead's metaphysics (from Science and the Modern World, through Process and Reality and Adventures of Ideas, and subsequently' one is confronted by a thoroughly subjectivistic approach to the universe, indeed to the world of nature (as well as by a strong empirical emphasis and a vigorous concern to achieve a unified world view through carefully honed intellectually effective categories). All this Helal states in his introduction and elsewhere throughout the book. However, despite considerable background discussion, the main concern of this book, as its title indicates, is with Whitehead's philosophy of science (philosophy of nature). Having pointed out why, in his opinion, Whitehead was interested in such issues, Helal provides an informed discussion of Whitehead's treatment of them. It is relevant to note that the most extensive of his five chapters (in his 248 pages of text), namely chapters 3 and 4, deal with 'L'unite intelligible du donne empirique: les donnees de la nature' (60 pages) and 'L'unite intelligible du donne empirique: l'abstraction extensive' (84 pages). Specifically the treatment of events and objects is thorough. His discussion of extensive abstraction, and the application of this concept (technique) to mathematical and scientific problems, is very extensive. Indeed it might be objected that, on occasion, he allows himself to be 'lured away' into excessive discussion of some very technical details of Whitehead's philosophy of science, thus endangering the balance of his book (consider, for example, his extensive comments on the concept of 'rect')o Worthy of special favourable note is his incisive discussion of the 'bifurcation of nature' theme in chapter 5. In general, Helal is competent and sagacious in his use of the history of science and of philosophy. He has benefited from contemporary Whitehead studies. This book will repay careful attention. (A.H. JOHNSON) Donald Evans. Faith, Authenticity, and Morality University of Toronto Press. xiii, 298. $25.00 There's something for every student of religion in this book. Evans has collected five essays originally published between 1971 and 1977 in various journals and anthologies ranging from Religious Studies to the American Journal of Jurisprudence to Faith and the Contemporary Epistemologies , and has added some new material as well in an introduction, a concluding chapter, and in introductory remarks and postscripts to each of the five essays. The topics range widely. There is material on religious language which 212 LETTERS IN CANADA 1980 extends and provides wholesale revision to the angle of approach of Evans's The Logic of Self-Involvement. There is a chapter each on an interpretive exposition of Ian Ramsey's theory of transcendence, on Sam Keen's ethics of being, and on Gregory Baum's theory of liberation and faith. In these three chapters Evans's focus is on constructing a theology from a theory of human nature. Following the chapter on Baum Evans critically examines Paul Ramsey's defence of exceptionless moral rules, conceding that there are 'virtually exceptionless moral rules' but arguing that their foundation must be on a theory of love which is more open and creative than the fidelity-love of Paul Ramsey's therefore unhealthily narrow account. This is followed by an explanatory presentation of the new creed authorized by the United Church of Canada for use in congregational worship. Evans speaks with double authority here, having been a member of the committee which drafted the creed. However, his account is not limited to exposition. Evans also provides a postscript to the chapter in which he makes an about-face on four views expressed in the body of the chapter, including the notion that appeal to the authority of tradition and scripture is the main basis for accepting an 'onlook' such as 'I look on people as brothers and sisters for whom Christ died.' Instead, Evans argues in his revised view that the proper justification of an 'onlook' is given in the degree to which the onlook facilitates discernments of the divine and the degree to which it contributes...


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