This study documents a total of 321 fishes in 64 families occurring at Wake Atoll, a coral atoll located at 19° 17' N, 166° 36' E. Ten fishes are listed by genus only and one by family; some of these represent undescribed species. The first published account of the fishes of Wake by Fowler and Ball in 1925 listed 107 species in 31 families. This paper updates 54 synonyms and corrects 20 misidentifications listed in the earlier account. The most recent published account by Myers in 1999 listed 122 fishes in 33 families. Our field surveys add 143 additional species records and 22 new family records for the atoll. Zoogeographic analysis indicates that the greatest species overlap of Wake Atoll fishes occurs with the Mariana Islands. Several fish species common at Wake Atoll are on the IUCN Red List or are otherwise of concern for conservation. Fish populations at Wake Atoll are protected by virtue of it being a U.S. military base and off limits to commercial fishing.