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Bayle scholars have largely treated toleration and theodicy as separate and unconnected topics in Bayle’s thought. I argue that in four places in the Historical and Critical Dictionary Bayle connects his concern for toleration with his refutations of theodicy. I show that there are historical, theological, and philosophical connections between the two seemingly disparate topics. An important result of this paper is that the atheistic reading of Bayle loses one its most important pillars, for Bayle’s reflection on evil, I argue, is not meant to undermine religious belief, but rather to encourage religious toleration, particularly of Calvinists.