Golf took the concept of the club from traditional voluntary organizations along with the ideas of committee structures, mechanisms for ensuring exclusivity, and a place, both geographically and socially, for communal conviviality. It became one of the fastest growing recreational activities of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Britain and the first participant sport to expend and invest large sums of money. By means of a model constructed around the development of the British golf club before 1914, this paper offers a new approach to examining the history of associativity in sport. It uses five concepts of capital—physical, financial, cultural, social, and human—and argues that their formation in the context of club development should not be explored in isolation of each other.


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pp. 299-331
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
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