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This article challenges the allegation by the ancient, pro-Constantinian Church historians Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea that the Roman emperor Aurelian (a.d . 270–75) was a persecutor of the Christians. Despite Aurelian’s positive relations with the Christian Church during his reign (here his arbitration in the Paul of Samosata affair is highlighted), such an accusation was nevertheless leveled against him by both individuals, and has a tendency to be repeated by many modern scholars as more or less true. The idea of Aurelian launching a persecution would not have happened given the practicality (or lack thereof) of such plans.