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BOOK REVIEWS107 of the missions in question, treating in order, the coming of the Jesuits to Brazil and Paraguay, the Jesuit reductions of Rio Grande do SuI, Uruguay and Tape, and the Paulista expeditions to the south (Part I). Part II treats of the economic-political antecedents of the founding of the Seven Peoples, sketching the origin of the mission economy and the part played by the Jesuits in Portugueze expansion in the Rio de la Plata area. Part III is concerned with the history of the Spanish Jesuit missions among the so-called Seven Peoples or Indian tribes in the eastern Uruguayan area, beginning with their founding and ending with their extinction after the Indians of these seven missions had defied the terms of the Treaty of Limits (Tratado dos Limites, generally called Treaty of Madrid in English), which placed them under Portugueze rule. Doctor Porto relies mostly on published works for his material, but he makes at times good use of the manuscript section of the National Library at Rio de Janeiro, most particularly of the extensive "Coleçâo de Angelis," which the Brazilian government acquired from the historian Pedro de Angelis. This collection contains thousands of rare codices and documents of the early history of Paraguay, La Plata and, indeed, of all South America, including many reports and documents on the missions. With the help of these documents, the author goes into detail about each mission founded in the area of present-day Uruguay. The story of the war which followed the iniquitous Treaty of Madrid in 1750 is told with all vividness. Dr. Porto cannot help but sympathize with the Jesuits and their Indian charges in their plight. He exonerates the Jesuits from blame for the Indian rebellion of that period. The book includes two graphs, giving pertinent statistics on the Seven Peoples during and after colonial times. This work is Number 9 of a series of works of various types, published irregularly by the Brazilian Ministry of Education and Health and the National Bureau of Historical and Artistic Remains (Serviço do Patrimonio Histórico e Artístico Nacional). The projected second volume, dealing with the architectural ruins of the Jesuit Missions of eastern Uruguay, has not, to my knowledge, appeared as yet. If it adheres to the high standards set by the author in his first volume, it will be welcomed by all those interested in the colonial mission history of South America. Mathias C. Kiemen, O.F.M. St. Joseph's Seminary, Teutopolis, Illinois. San Francisco de Asís, Patrono Universal de la Acción Católica. By Augustin Baez, O.F.M. y Dr. J. M. Nunez Ponte. Buenos Aires: 1945. Pp. 299. The work of these two scholars fills a gap in the ever growing literature on Catholic Action. They present St. Francis of Assisi in a new light as heavenly patron of Catholic Action. Friar Baez points out that the ideas of St. Francis have continued to inspire men during seven centuries. In his life he established a perfect 108BOOK REVIEWS equilibrium between internal and external activity. From the illusions of his youth he turned to God through contact with the Mystical Body of Christ in the lepers. Imitation of the life of the Savior created the Franciscan Apostolate with its crowning stimulus in Franciscan poverty. Like Christ he progressed from a personal to a corporate apostolate by inspiring disciples to associate themselves with him and by preaching through example . To extend the influence of the friars, St. Francis founded an auxiliary apostolate in the Third Order, which for seven hundred years has been the living realization of Catholic Action by its universal appeal of brotherly love, by its force of interior life and exterior good example, and by its adaptation to the needs of the times. In the chapter on Franciscan inspiration of modern Catholic Action, Friar Baez stresses the "kingly priesthood" of the laity, and maintains that the Third Order is today what it was in the Middle Ages. The work concludes with a description of St. Francis as the leader of Catholic Action and of the Franciscan Spirit. Dr. J. M. Nunez Ponte considers St. Francis (pp...


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