While it is recognized that self-concept and self-esteem affect the academic achievement of students, few publications have focused on the affective and psychological needs of students who are gifted and ethnically or culturally diverse. In this article, we extend the discussion of self-concept and achievement by focusing on how racial identity development affects the achievement of gifted African American students. We argue that few efforts, designed to improve gifted Black students' achievement and social-emotional well-being, will be successful until educators focus specifically on their racial identity. While we acknowledge that a focus on racial identity is necessary for all African American students, we are most concerned in this article with gifted Black students because so few have been identified as gifted. Along with describing racial identity development and issues facing gifted African American students, we offer solutions for change.