Introduction. Increasing Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) activities such as raids, detention, and deportation may be affecting the health and well-being of immigrants. This study sought to understand the impact of ICE activities on immigrant health from the perspective of health care providers. Methods. An online survey of primary care and emergency medicine providers was conducted to determine whether ICE activity was negatively affecting immigrant patients. Results. Of 327 providers surveyed, 163 responded (50%) and 156 (48%) met criteria for inclusion. Seventy-five (48%) of them observed negative effects of ICE enforcement on the health or health access of immigrant patients. Forty-three providers gave examples of the impact on emotional health, ability to comply with health care recommendations, and access. Conclusions. Health care providers are witnessing the negative effects of ICE activities on their immigrant patients' psychological and physical health. This should be considered an important determinant of immigrant health.


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pp. 651-665
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
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