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258 Reviews by themselves convey the beauty offloral,geometric or calUgraphic motives displayed by thetiles,the appreciation of their inherent aesthetic and historical merits is magnified by means of meticulous captions. For example, reproductions of epigraphic fragments of different, sometimes difficult, decorative scripts are provided with EngUsh translations and even with their hibUographic' identification. A pedantic epigraphist would notice that the initial word in the Kufic Qur'anic inscription reproduced in iUus. 18 does not appear in its entirety in the sample as claimed by its translator. Also, the word ghirr which appears in the naskhi inscription reproduced in iUustration 47 aUows a more precise chronological identification than [the one] given in its caption. The contents of the book are enriched by two maps of the Middle East, showing the location of discussed sites, by a basic bibliography of further reading pertaining to each of the chapters, and by an equaUy useful index. In her preface the author reverently acknowledges the unsurpassed accompUshments of Arthur Lane, a Keeper of Ceramics in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 'whose books on Islamic pottery and tUes remain inspired and standard works', hi the opinion of this reviewer, Venetia Porter has fulfilled her o w n stated mission of bringing 'the subject up to date' and that within the rather narrow page limitations aUowed. Her contribution will prove of important educational and aesthetic benefit to speciaUsts and the general pubUc alike. Andrew S. Ehrenkreutz Department of Classics and Archaeology University of Melbourne Reynolds, Suzanne, Medieval Reading: Grammar, Rhetoric and the Classical Text (Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 27), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996; cloth; pp. xvi, 235; 1 b / w iUustration; R.R.P. AUS$90.00. A detaUed study of glosses on Horace's Satires in twelfth-century manuscripts from England and Northern France aUows Reynolds to Reviews 259 examine the w a y the trivium arts of grammar and rhetoric were brought to bear on the reading of authoritative classical texts. She argues that from the earliest stage of the learning process, learning to read meant reading a foreign language, and classical texts on the curriculum were taught not for their o w n sake, but for the sake of something else—according to the wording of an accessus to Horace (MS BibUoteca ApostoUca Vaticana, Reg. lat. 1780), ' . . . quedam propter aUud, ut auctores' (p. 12). What that something else was exactly is the focus for m u c h of Reynolds' study, as she carefully uncovers the pedagogic principles which underUe the directions to readers preserved in the margins of Horace. Within the pedagogic discourse of glossing, classical authors can be seen to have an 'instrumental status,' their authority appropriated by the glossator, a magister w h o inscribes his o w n reading for his pupUs according to perceptions of then needs at particular levels of literacy. Reynolds charts the stages of the reading syUabus across the stages of life, from pueritia (boyhood) to adolescentia (adolescence) and considers it against the incremental pedagogy of medieval grammar: the letter, the syUable, the word, the phrase. One of the important findings Reynolds makes in her study is the complex interaction of Latin and the vernacular in pedagogic practice. Whereas vernacular glossing of lexical items instantiates a servile attitude to the authority of the classical text (p. 64), other interventions by the glossator, such as hie, hec, hoc glosses, suggest a vernacular framework imposed onto the grammatical forms of the text to aid students, and possibly a metalinguistic strategy for mediating between Latin and the vernacular using a m o d e of pedagogy derived from the tradition of grammatica (these two possibUities are explored in Chapter 5). In this context, the Promisimus commentary on Priscian which Reynolds quotes demonstrates both the glossator's concern with appropriate methods for particular stages of learning and the use of the structure of one language to explain another: Similiter in articulis Gallicis, ubi dicitur puero: Ubi ponitur li, cuius casus? Et respdnde Nominativi; et ubi dicitur de, et respondet: Genitivi ('Similarly with th French articles, w h e n someone says to the boy, 'Where / / is put, what is its case?' A n d he responds, 'The...


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