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Reviews 253 herself. As a result, her grandchUdren are fostered in the forest by a hermit and grow up in ignorance of what it means to be a member of the aristocracy and of the very meaning of the word 'mother'. Taken as a whole, this volume urges us to rethink the presentation of nurturers in the largely patriarchal texts that have survived from the period and to see the activity of 'mothering' as one that aUows for many definitions and paradigms. Margaret Rogerson Department of EngUsh University of Sydney Pettegree, Andrew, Marian Protestantism: Six Studies (St Andrews Studies in Reformation History), Aldershot, Scolar Press, 1996; cloth; pp. 213; R.R.P. AUS$108.00. Marian Protestantism reassesses the role and significance of Protestantism for the reign of Mary I, and in so doing reexamines both the contribution of Edwardian Protestantism and the heritage of eariier reforms for the EUzabethan reUgious settlement. The six essays each concentrate on different aspects of these reassessments but are closely interrelated through the firmly established conviction that Marian Protestantism was far more significant than has previously been aUowed. The Introduction briefly reconsiders accepted scholarship on the subject of Marian Protestantism and its presumed weaknesses, and lays the groundwork for the essays which deal with its various manifestations, which Pettegree points out were more diverse than the usual focal points of the exiles Uving in Switzerland and southern Germany, and the martyrs. In the first essay, "The EngUsh Church at Emden', Pettegree shows that the Anglican community which settled at E m d e n early in 1554 was a well-organised and disciplined group which was not as much troubled by disputes as other exile communities. The organisation of the EngUsh church at E m d e n provided a model for later exile communities and m a y have been the basis for the underground church in London. The pubUshing of English and Latin works out of printing houses in E m d e n after the arrival of the English community 254 Reviews was an important contribution to the spread of the reformed faith both in England and on the Continent. These works provided moral support for those of their brethren w h o remained behind in England, and undermined the success of the Catholic restoration there. The experiment at E m d e n was useful in the development of ecclesiastical structures of the Elizabethan reformed church. The second essay, "The Stranger Community in Marian London', reassesses the belief that aU foreign Protestants w h o had taken refuge in London during the previous two reigns had obeyed governmental injunctions of 1553 and 1554 to return to the Continent. These committed Protestants were perceived as posing a threat to the reestablishment of a Catholic regime but the records of the exile towns of Germany suggest that indeed very few of those supposedly ejected took up residence there. Pettegree concludes that a 'substantial minority' of foreign Protestants remained in London without benefit of an official church community. Some of these foreigners who remained were in fact craftsmen and merchants whose services the locals were disinclined to relinquish and it seems they were assisted to remain in spite of government deportation orders. Pettegree concludes that although many of the foreigners did not join the Protestant underground and many also attended Mass to avoid persecution, this does not mean their faith was insincere as they usuaUy undertook pubUc reconciliation to their church communities (including some element of humiliation) after Mary's death. The next essay, 'The London Exile Community and the Second Sacramentarian Controversy, 1553-1560', might be better placed before the second essay as it provides more detail on the establishment of the foreign churches in London and the trials and peregrinations of the exUes after Mary's accession. Calvinist doctrines were graduaUy replacing Lutheranism in the structures and liturgy of the foreign and EngUsh exUe church communities on the Continent and this contributed to the friction which was evidenced between the many reformed communities. Divisions over Eucharistic doctrine inhibited unification of the increasingly diverse confessions of the Protestant churches, though during the 1550s Calvin's indefatigable influence meant that the term 'Calvinist...


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