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Book Reviews 149 rules of referentiality which governed the exegetical process, and a much sharper perspective on how the Christian Bible (itself shaped out of religious cultures and traditions ofinterpretation) engendered its own rich discursive and symbolic culture in the hands of its patristic imitators/exegetes. Paul M. Blowers Department of Church History Emmanuel School of Religion Tolerance and Intolerance in Early Judaism and Christianity, edited by Graham N. Stanton and Guy G. Stroumsa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. 370 pp. $59.95. This collection of 19 essays considers the tolerance and intolerance faced by Jews and Christians during the period from 200 B.C.E. to 200 C.E. The essays are as follows: Ithamar Gruenwald, "Intolerance and Martyrdom: from Socrates to Rabbi'Aqiva," pp. 7-29; Daniel R. Schwartz, "The Other in 1 and 2 Maccabees," pp. 30-37; Albert I. Baumgarten, "The Pursuit of the Millennium in Early Judaism," pp. 38-60; Michael Mach, "Conservative Revolution? The Intolerant Innovations of Qumran," pp. 61-79; John M. G. Barclay, "Who Was Considered an Apostate in the Jewish Diaspora?," pp. 80-98; Justin Taylor, "Why Did Paul Persecute the Church?," pp. 99-120; Stephen C. Barton, "Paul and the Limits of Tolerance," pp. 121-134; Maren R. Niehoff, "Philo's Views on Paganism," pp. 135-158; Moshe Halbertal, "Coexisting with the Enemy: Jews and Pagans in the Mishnah," pp. 159-172; Guy G. Stroumsa, "Tertullian on Idolatry and the Limits of Tolerance," pp. 173-184; Fran90is Blanchetiere, "The Threefold Christian Anti-Judaism," pp. 185-210; Joel Marcus, "The Intertextual Polemic ofthe Markan Vineyard Parable," pp. 211-227; Richard Bauckham, "Jews and Jewish Christians in the Land ofIsrael at the Time ofthe Bar Kochba War, with Special Reference to the Apocalypse of Peter," pp: 228-238; Martinus C. de Boer, "The Nazoreans: Living at the Boundary ofJudaism and Christianity," pp. 239-262; Graham N. Stanton, "Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho: Group Boundaries, 'Proselytes' and 'G-d-fearers'," pp. 263-278; Judith M. Lieu, "Accusations of Jewish Persecution in Early Christian Sources, with Particular Reference to Justin Martyr and the Martyrdom ofPolycarp," pp. 279-295; William Horbury, "Early Christians on Synagogue Prayer and Imprecation," pp. 296-317; Andrew Chester, "Messianism, Torah and Early Christian Tradition," pp. 318-341; Markus Bockmuehl, "Jewish and Christian Public Ethics in the Early Roman Empire," pp. 342-355. There is an introduction by Stanton (pp. 1-6) and "Postscript: the Future ofIntolerance," by Stroumsa (pp. 356-361). Gruenwald says that martyrdom is the opposite of intolerance but notes that the difference is not as clearly delineated as we would like it to be. He cites Socrates and 150 SHOFAR Spring 2000 Vol. 18, No.3 'Aqiva as martyrs, but we may remark that Socrates had a choice if he had suggested exile as a penalty. Schwartz notes that there are two exceptions to the thesis in 1 Maccabees that all Gentiles are evil, namely the Romans and the Spartans. He explains that both are distant and that the Spartans are said to be of Abrahamic descent. We may suggest that the Romans are an exception because the Maccabees had made a treaty with them in 161 B.C.E.; perhaps also because the author may have known the tradition that the Romans are descended from Esau, the brother of Jacob. Baumgarten argues convincingly for the existence of millenarian hopes. He notes as evidence a newly published fragmentary Dead Sea text (4Q47a ) which attacks the certainty of rivals that the redemption was at hand. Citing the recently published 4QMMT, Mach argues that the main reason for the separation of the Dead Sea sect lies in halakhic differences between the group and the Jerusalem priesthood. However, we may suggest that innumerable halakhic differences are inherent in the Mishnah and do not necessarily lead to a separatist movement. Barclay defmes apostasy as abandonment ofcommitment to the Jewish community and its way of life, particularly through worshipping other gods and laxity in Jewish food laws. We may note, however, that the Bible frequently condemns those worshipping other gods, but this still lacks the totality of apostasy-conversion. Moreover, the Talmud insists that even though a Jew has sinned (and...


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