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120 SHOFAR Spring 1994 Vol. 12, No.3 sterile dichotomy of Jewish fanaticism or Roman oppression in order to explain the emergence of revolutionary ideology in first-century C.E. Judaea. Second, his analysis of· the devaluation of the material and institutional symbols of Jewish political nationalism ·provides a firm firstcentury C.E. Jewish context for the, at first glance, surprising lack of interest in either the land ofJudaea or the temple that is evident in early Christian literature. In addition, each chapter contains illuminating observations on the impact of contemporary events on the development of Hellenistic Jewish literature and thought. Simply put, The Rise and Fall ofJewish Nationalism is an important work that will have to be taken account of in any future scholarly discussion concerning Hellenistic Judaism and its relations with its neighbors. Stanley M. Burstein . Department of History California State University Los Angeles Fundamental Evangelicals and Anti-Semitism, by David A. Rausch. Valley Forge: Trinity Press International, 1993. 253 pp. n.p.l. This is a difficult work to evaluate. For those of us who understand Christian attitudes as described by Glock and Stark,1 that a very large number of Christians believe that Jews were primarily responsible for deicide and that whatever sufferings they have experienced are deserved, have a surprise awaiting them in Rausch's well written and extensively documented work. First, I must note that this is not a text for beginners in the JewishChristian dialogue. Unless readers are familiar with such Christian eschatological terms as pre- and post-millennialism, chiliasm, rapture, dispensationalism, etc., they will not penetrate Rausch's historical description and interpretations. I would suggest that all readers begin by reading the last, summary, chapter first. It should provide a useful framework. I For those who have a background, this book is essential for a fuller context of Jewish-Christian relations. What about 'the author's title, 'Charles Y. Glock and Rodney Stark, Christian Beliefs and Anti-Semitism (New York: Harper Brothers, 1966). Book Reviews 121 fundamentalist evangelicalism? The second term is easier to grasp for it refers simply to the logical necessity of Christians to missionize and evangelize the entire world. Fundamentalism, however, may be more controversial. While used often as a term of derision by liberal Christians, committed anti-Christians, and Jews, which may also be resented by fundamentalists who sense the negative connotations, the word, Rausch argues, is valid. It appears first in the nineteenth century as an attempt to discover those beliefs basic or fundamental to Christianity. The term comes into popular use in a series of tracts written in the second decade of this century. The conflict between Judaism and evangelical fundamentalism, however, can be found in the mid-nineteenth century, the author contends, as fundamentalists began to distance themselves from "liberal" Protestants who were obviously being dangerously influenced by modern scholarship, Enlightenment views, and· political liberalism. The Bible, both Testaments, was held to be literally true; inerrant, and infallible (a term now used to describe the Pope speaking ex cathedra). The meaning of the Bible, fundamentalists have always asserted, is plain and simple and must be read "on the flat," a term denoting acceptance of self-evident language. The author mentions but does not dwell on the fact that fundamentalist evangelicals were usually at odds among themselves about the meaning of a given statement, chapter, or verse. He does, however, establish an interesting and probably unfamiliar relationship between orthodox Jews and fundamentalist evangelicals. The reform Jewish movement and its leader in this country, Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise, were anathema to. fundamentalists, who regarded them simply as apostates, not much better than liberal Protestants or Catholics. The heart of the author's argument is that, perceived Jewish threat to the contrary, fundamentalist evangelicals displayed positive attitudes toward orthodox Jews whom they regarded as fulfillment of biblical prophecies, especially those accepted by pre-millennialists. Further, with some notable exceptions in this country, e.g., Reverend Gerald Winrod, the blatant anti-Semite and covert Nazi syrt:\pathizer, fundamentalist evangelical leaders despised antisemitism because it generated Jewish resentment and was a clear violation of God's will in that it sanctioned hatred toward "the apple of His eye." Jews were...


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