This article examines the constitution of the collections of the Multicultural History Society of Ontario between 1976 and 1982 in the context of the Canadian policy of multiculturalism. Set up as an independent nonprofit organization to document the history of ethnocultural communities in Ontario, the society was funded with public money. This article considers how competition with other cultural heritage organizations and relationships with ethnic donors affected collecting strategies. While the society’s mission was scholarly, the politicization of multiculturalism influenced its collecting process in significant ways. This case study illustrates the importance of understanding contextual factors when assessing the scope, content, and limitations of library, archive, or museum collections.