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70Victorian Review surrounding the Mannings' crime, and the public's general fascination with murder in all forms, to "the same facet of the British genius that created the Elizabethan drama and gave birth to the eighteenth-century novel of adventure" (81). The murder itself was a domestic affair; O ' Connor was shot, and then bludgeoned for good measure, in the scullery of the Mannings ' house and buried under the floor along with a large amount of lime. Without a doubt however, the most fascinating sequences in the book involve street scenes. This book provides a wonderful account of the spectacle which was a public hanging; it also, in the process, implicitly suggests that most Victorians, genteel though they could be, were also a particularly vicious lot. A crowd estimated at thirty thousand, and according to the Times correspondent comprising members from all social classes, watched the Mannings' execution. Entrepreneurs rented the front gardens of the houses across from the prison wall so that grandstands could accommodate the well-to-do, a wise choice considering that to stay in the street with the surging crowd could be life-threatening, as indeed it was for one poor young woman who was trodden to death. In conclusion, it is unfortunate that Borowitz relies almost entirely on newspaper accounts, which given Sindall 's research must be treated circumspectly, to attempt his rehabilitation of Marie Manning. Quite simply he lacks the resources to portray her as a victim, which surely she was, of her husband and the male dominated legal system which condemned her to the gallows. Chris Hosgood University of Lethbridge American Art Journal 21.2 (1989). Paul Kane Issue. Ed., Intro., Trans. I. S. MacLaren. Readers who know Paul Kane through his paintings, his book Wanderings of an Artist (1859), and the writings of art historians, will be mildly shocked by I. S. MacLaren · s disclosures in this absorbing issue of The American Art Journal. Kane—a fine patrician figure and a frequenter of galleries in London, Rome, and Florence—was barely literate. He had difficulty speUing even the simplest words and his sentences, without punctuation to break them, ran on in the manner of the unschooled. Mary Richardson Walker, an Oregon woman who met Kane on his western Reviews71 travels (1846-1848), thought him a clever artist but "an ungodly man of not much learning." More recently, Maude Allan Cassells likened his idiosyncratic spelling to that of "a little child or an eighteenth-century gentleman." Ice, country, enough, and cold are regularly spelled in Kane's field journal as "ise," "cuntrey," "annuf" or "anph," and "coald." References to art fared no better: sketches became "cetchis," and the people he painted "grate warers." Surprisingly, for a painter, he was even careless about the shape ofletters: vowels were so lazily formed that o, a, and u are sometimes indistinguishable. Yet Kane was no dunce. His vocabulary, for a man so careless of the structure of language, was disconcertingly large: temerity, espied, incessantly, and comprehension are used in the narrative, but aU eccentrically spelled. Of the surviving manuscripts in Kane ' s own hand, one is a journal of travels and the other a log, in places extensively annotated, of the Indians and landscapes that he painted. Wanderings of an Artist, which was published ten years after Kane ' s return to Toronto, in 1848 , is a blend of the two. The gulf between the field notes and the book is analogous to the gulf between Kane ' s oil and watercolor sketches and the finished canvases painted in his Toronto studio. But there is a critical difference. Whereas Kane himselfconverted the sketches into studio oils, the polished and published version of his journal was patently the work of other hands. Kane could be trusted with paintings, but the task of converting raw notes into publishable prose was well beyond him. In a highly competitive travel literature market publishers had a keen sense of the style and tone necessary to guarantee brisk sales. The publisher's gain, alas, was posterity ' s loss: the true Kane was buried for more than a century. The Kane of the journal is a droll, laconic, self-deprecating figure with a lively turn...


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