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78ROCKY MOUNTAIN REVIEW schools only when they lament the woeful inability of high school graduates to read and write. Ball State's encouragement of student writers may be small, but it is a solid, positive step. This little pamphlet collects twenty-two complete offerings by the winning high school juniors. All entrants submitted a sample of their writing and were asked to write a sixty minute essay on rebels in society. The pamphlet includes a number of those impromptu essays as well as fiction, opinion essays and even an essay on "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." While the publication of the pamphlet is designed to encourage writers and sustain the program, it may be of practical value to those of us who use student writing in composition courses. The writing of these juniors compares favorably with the standard writing in composition courses and could compliment the writing of students in the course. Perhaps we could encourage the high school writer in each of our states through publication and by extension, perhaps the publication of the good student writing we receive in all of our classes in college could nurture the kind of desire and care that produces good writing. JIM RUPPERT, Navajo Community College Maureen Quilligan, The Language ofAllegory: Defining the Genre. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1979. 305 p. A curious contradiction exists in literary studies concerning allegory. On one hand, the term is often used so loosely as to be virtually meaningless in its underdistinctiveness. On the other hand, there is a certain loathing, even among serious scholars, for classic allegorical literature. Quilligan's study, which is one of the best treatments I have read since Auerbach's writings on the problems of allegory and typology (i.e., Christian allegory), deals with the subject from the perspective of some of the axioms of contemporary literary study. For example, she reflects positivist treatment that sees allegory as straightforward statement that is intrinsically rational but needs translation into another straightforward statement (allegory as "other-saying"). Allegory is a form of verbal punning. The reader completes the text in the sense that s/he organizes patterns of semiological meaning from the verbal signs given. Part of the competence of the reader is to locate the material text in terms of the other texts, the pretext to which it refers intertextually and the context, the socially symbolic texts of a reader's culture. Allegory is to be seen in this way as a semiological process for "opening up" meaning in a fashion that contemporary theorists have postulated as instrinsic to the sociocultural functions of literature: the "dislocated" or "absent" center of meaning, the unstable referent, and the anti-ideological and demythificational uses of symbolic discourse. Quilligan concludes by recognizing that there is a continuity between classic examples of rhetoric and the goals of contemporary writers like Pynchon, whose Gravity's Rainbow she discusses in detail. Although BOOK REVIEWS79 she does not mention Robert Scholes's various writings, his concept of "structural fabulation" seems to be the very process that Quilligan is talking about. Quilligan's study is outstanding and should enjoy and extensive influence on future studies on allegory and the process of meaning in literature. DAVID WJLLJAM FOSTER, Arizona State University Camillo Sbarbaro, Poesie. English translation by Diana Wormuth. Stockholm : Itálica, 1979. 112 p. While botanists in the United States may be familiar with Camillo Sbarbaro 's published work on lichens, American literati are generally unfamiliar with his poetry. Even L. R. Lind's recent anthology, Twentieth Century Italian Poetry, fails to include any of his poems. Yet Sbarbaro (1888-1967) commands respect in Italy as a Ligurian poet and precursor of Móntale and as a translator of Greek classics and French authors. In this bilingual edition of eighteen of his most representative poems, the English-speaking public may at last find a praiseworthy introduction to this important contemporary poet. Diana Wormuth's literal yet elegant rendition, both of Carlo Bo's Preface and of the poems, reveals the hand of a skillful translator. The Italian original faces the English translation on every page. The poems chosen for the volume come from the 1914 and 1960 editions...


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