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Book Reviews213 in which "The Bear" appears, is Faulkner's most moving account of the intimate relationship among the races in the South (Native American as well as black and white), but this historian reads it largely for its magnificent hunting story. Williamson clearly knows Faulkner's world well. He could have written the kind of history of Lafayette County and Northwest Mississippi that would have connected Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha County more clearly with the landmarks of the "real" place. His publisher could have helped, too, by providing a map or two, the kind of indispensable visual aid Oxford "histories " usually contain. Faulkner and Southern History is a thoroughly readable , valuable book, but I hope its title won't convince other historians that the subject has been exhausted. WILLIAM T. HAMILTON Metropolitan State College ofDenver CAROL SCHREHCR RUPPRECHT, ed. The Dream and the Text: Essays on Literature and Language. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. 325 p. A collection ofessays by diverse hands rarely has the impact ofa book written by a single author who skillfully and fully pursues one large idea. Nevertheless, the collection under review—a study of the relations between dreams and literature, edited by an established Jungian scholar—has a number of strengths which largely compensate for its lack ofunivocal coherence . The contributors, a number of whom have published books on dreams, discuss the genres of poetry, fiction, and drama from various national cultures both ancient and modern. With the exception of Norman Holland's minor classic "Hermia's Dream," all the essays were written specifically for this volume. Although the book's interdisciplinary ambitions are not, in my judgment, fulfilled, many of the individual pieces have considerable intrinsic interest. The foreword, written by Norman Holland with his characteristic playfulness and modesty, tentatively divides students of dreams into two classes. The first are the dream explainers—chiefly Freud, but also sleep researchers like J. Allan Hobson and Robert W. McCarley—who proceed "scientifically." The second are the dream worshipers—Jung and his acolytes—who are impressed "by the recurrence of particular symbols and themes in dreams," who regard "the dream as an irruption from something beyond our ken," and who would explain dreams by appealing to "something supernatural" (xiii). Holland's brief discussion of dreams in relation to literary texts consists mostly of questions. Do dreams belong to the dreamer or to the dream's interpreter? Do texts belong to their authors or to their readers ? Should dreams within literary texts be treated like "real" dreams (and whose dreams are they)? Though paying deference to Jung as the "most 214Rocky Mountain Review sophisticated" dream worshiper, Holland generally comes down on the side of Freud, thus foregrounding what the editor Rupprecht deplores as "the major polarization in twentieth-century oneirics: Freud vs. Jung" (129). Though the editor evidently intended the book to rise above that polarization , Holland makes the existence of the two "poles" an important subtext in the collection. Since the volume as a whole is heavily weighted toward Jungian and other anti-Freudian readings, this "Freudian" foreword has (in Jung's terms) a "compensatory," "balancing" function. The introduction, co-authored by Rupprecht and by Kelly Bulkley, explains what students of literature can gain by a study of dreaming, that form of involuntary textual production in which we all engage. The authors propose that "oneirocriticism" (the study/interpretation of dreams in literature ) must be informed by a variety of disciplines. Certain recent developments , they say, have "opened the way for a return of respect for the multifarious implications of dreams, both 'real' and 'literary,' in and of themselves." First among these developments is "an erosion of Freud's hegemony as the supreme authority on the meaning of dreams and a similar revaluation of Jung's stature as an oneirologist" (2). (For evidence that no such erosion has occurred within literary criticism, see John W. Kronik, "Editor's Column," PMLA 106 [March 1991]: 201.) "Bizarreness in Dreams and Other Fictions" by Bert O. States discusses the ostensible bizarreness of dreams to make a number of points about "waking fictions." Building on Allan Reichschaffen's idea of the dream's "single-mindedness" (its normal inability to...


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