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Reviews249 Lexique Fulfulde (Maasina)-Anglais-Français. Ed. Donald W. Osborn, David J. Dwyer, andJoseph I. Donohoe,Jr. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1993. Pp. xx + 688. $69.95. Fulfulde (also known as Fula) , a language of the West Atlantic branch of the Niger-Congo language family (Greenberg 1966), is spoken by over 20 million people (Asher 1994) in Eastern, Western, and Central Africa. Even though a systematic study of Fula dialects and their delimitations is yet to be undertaken, six dialects have been identified (Arnott 1970). Lexique Fulfulde (Maasina)-Anglais-Français focuses on the Maasina dialect spoken mainly in Mali. The editors of this dictionary, owing to the peculiarities of the language, faced a number of problems relating to the representation of forms, the organization of entries, and dialect features. Because of the dedication and expertise of the team that compiled it, the dictionary, nevertheless, represents a major accomplishment that will contribute significantly to the development of Fula lexicography. According to its stated objectives, the dictionary attempts to survey extensively the vocabulary of the Maasina dialect, to supplement other linguistic and lexicographic works on Fulfulde, and to provide a reference source on Fulfulde vocabulary for researchers and nonnative learners of Fulfulde. The editors have, to a large extent, accomplished their objectives: the dictionary is the most extensive lexicographic work on the Fulfulde Maasina dialect, and it will serve researchers, users, and learners of Fulfulde well. The dictionary consists of three major sections. The first section (1-405) is a Fulfulde-Anglais-Français lexicon, the second (409-524) an Anglais-Fulfulde lexicon, and the third (525-646) a Français-Fulfulde lexicon. The dictionary is intended primarily for intermediate and advanced nonnative learners of Fulfulde. The use of three languages in the first section, following Zubko (1980), makes the work accessible to a larger audience, while the Anglais-Fulfulde and Français-Fulfulde sections are especially commendable because they allow quick reference. Several appendices provide valuable information : Appendix A (649-54) lists problematic entries; Appendix B (655) focuses on initial consonant alternation; Appendix C (656) illustrates verbal extensions ; Appendix D (657-77) provides an inventory of noun classes and nouns included in other class categories; Appendix E (677-79) provides notes on orthography and alphabetical ordering; an extensive bibliography (681-88) is provided as the final section of the dictionary. Even though the dictionary treats primarily the Maasina dialect spoken in Mali, it covers this dialect vocabulary comprehensively. The alphabet selected for the dictionary and the alphabetical ordering are, to a great extent, consistent with previous recommendations by Fagerberg-Diallo (1984). As far as the representation of forms is concerned, Fulfulde entry forms are structured to represent actual pronunciation. The formsfodde andfunnaange, for instance, are actual pronunciation forms. Even though this strategy can be useful in assisting nonnative speakers in their attempts to pronounce Fulfulde, it has a 250Reviews number of weaknesses. The formsfodde andfunnaange consist respectively oïfot + de and fuct+ naange. The in fotde undergoes assimilation; so does in fudnaange. Failure to list actual stems/morphemes can lead to confusion about the shapes of the listed forms and, too often, entries involving assimilation do not show stems or root forms. Witiiout reference to die shape of the stem or root, the listing of futtude (101), wattude (209), and loodo (363), for instance, can be very misleading to users as diese listed forms are, prior to die operation of the relevant phonological rules, respectively, fudtude, wadtude, and lohcfo. This problem could be avoided by listing die actual shapes of the stem and suffixes attached to it and then providing the pronunciation when necessary (Niang 1997b). Consequendy, diese forms would be entered as fudtude [futtude ], wadtude [wattude], and lohdo [lootfo]. In addition to providing pronunciation when assimilatory processes make it necessary, this alternative strategy illustrates various processes that may be useful, say, to a researcher interested in syllable structure, sonority constraints, and assimilatory processes. Stress assignment and advanced tongue root features are not represented in die entries or in die front matter. The editors do not specify whether they are excluded because they are predictable or because die sources used in compiling die dictionary did not...


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