Because the medical modernization of Meiji Japan has been identified with progress in Asian societies, Japanese colonial medicine has been viewed as a carefully planned project. Colonial propaganda capitalized on this image in bringing "civilization to colonies." In postwar scholarship, this view lends credibility to Basalla's diffusionist model of the spread of Western science. However, a factor in the spread of modern medicine from Japan to its colonies was the academic rivalry between Kitasato's pupils and Todai faculty between 1899 and 1914. Before medical modernization in Japan had produced sufficient resources to meet domestic need, the rivalry had driven many medical elites to colonies, with a ripple effect that produced a web of colonial medicine largely outside Todai's influence. In contrast to popular interpretations, this article proposes another possibility for understanding the formation of Japanese colonial medicine—rather than being carefully planned, it emerged from a professional feud.


中文摘要由於日本明治時期的醫學現代化常被視為是東亞社會裡進步的象 徵,因此也理所當然地認為其殖民醫學是一組精心設計的規畫。當時的殖民 宣傳機制亦以「殖民地之文明開化」為由,強化這樣的印象。戰後學界又根 據這樣的論點,呼應巴薩拉(George Basalla)之西方科學傳播的擴散理論。然 而,導致現代醫學從日本傳播到其殖民地的原因之一,卻可能導因於1899- 1914年間北里柴三郎及弟子們與東京帝大教授間的角力競爭。事實上,早在 日本醫學現代化產生足敷國內需求的醫療資源前,這場角力已然將許多醫學 精英驅迫到殖民地;因這樣的漣漪效應所生成之殖民醫學網絡關係,實非東 大所能完全掌控。相對於過去常見的解釋角度,本文提出了解日本殖民醫學形成的另一個可能性:與其說日本殖民醫學是個精心計畫的產物,倒不如當 它是個專業衝突下的副產品。


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pp. 47-71
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Archived 2021
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