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254Reviews both cases is Judezmo]). Let us hope that the next edition of this dictionary will be even better than this one. David L. Gold University of Haifa NOTES 1 See David L. Gold, "Preliminary Remarks on the Origin of American English chicano," Comments on Etymology 12, 7-8, January 1983, pp. 23-27. 2 See pp. 118-122 of Lillian Mermin Feinsilver, "Speaking of the Clergy," American Speech 58, 2, 1983, pp. 114-125. Ram Adhar Singh, An Introduction to Lexicography. Central Institute of Indian Languages, Occasional Monographs Series, No. 26. Mysore, Central Institute of Indian Languages, 1982. 254 pages, price Rs. 30. This Introduction has a general character being based on the general principles of lexicography. However, it is written with special reference to the languages of India and with the purpose of helping Indian lexicographers. In this respect, it is similar to the parallel introductory text by Doris A. Bartholomew and Louise C. Schoenhals, Bilingual Dictionaries for Indigenous Languages, México, D. F., Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, 1983, which, in turn, is written with specific reference to the languages of Mexico and Central America. There is, however, the difference that Singh's text covers both bilingual and monolingual lexicography; indeed, the latter is treated somewhat Reviews255 preferentially. Singh's book has the normal structure of such introductions: The first two chapters discuss the relation of lexicography to lexicology, to linguistics, to grammar, the types of dictionaries and similar matters. This last section laudably contains a discussion of the learner's dictionary, a type only recently developed. I am not sure that the type of the encyclopedic dictionary is well established; what is discussed (p. 14) are rather cases of encyclopedicity within the language dictionary, with possibly unnecessary encyclopedicity, as opposed to the necessary type unmentioned. Nor am I sure that the difficulty of drawing a Une between synchronic and diachronic dictionaries is best illustrated by reference to the point that etymology or derivation which, if appended to the headword in the lemma, introduces an element of diachrony even into the synchronic dictionary (p. 14f); surely there are more cogent circumstances, such as the variant status of the lexical units on the cline between 'obsolete' and 'neologism' etc. On the whole however, the discussion is good, as is the treatment of lexical meaning and related issues (polysemy, homonymy, synonymy, etc.) in the third chapter. The next three chapters discuss the monolingual dictionary in a so to say genetic way: they trace its preparation (p. 76ff.), i.e., mostly its planning, the collection of material, and the selection of entries; its editing (p. 108ff), i.e. mostly the structure of the entry, or the microstructure (the headword, the grammatical information, the description of meaning by definitions etc., the glosses, labels, etc.), to the preparation of the press copy (p. 161ff.); i.e. the macro-structure or the arrangement of the entries (the alphabetical sequence, nesting, subentries etc.). The next chapter (p. 18 Iff.) discusses related matters such as the choice of symbols and of format, the various possible appendices, the preface, the reader's guide, etc. And finally the eighth chapter (p. 190ff.) discusses the specificities of the bilingual dictionary (the types of bilingual dictionaries, 256Reviews mostly determined by the purpose, the equivalence, the meaning discrimination, etc.). There is a good bibliography; a ten page appendix containing a list of the more important Indian dictionaries deserves a specific mention. The book has two particular advantages. First, it is based on its author's immediate lexicographic experience; every other page shows this quite clearly in the way the reader gets practical advice. So, e.g., on the treatment of polysemy (p. 55f.), on the collection of material in unwritten languages (p. 88f.), on the citations being indicative of registers (p. 142), on the contents of the preface (p. 181f.) etc. The book's second forte consists in the fact that being largely based on Indian languages, it brings many fresh, good examples, not only of lexical material and semantic phenomena, but also of cultural and lexicographic situations. Naturally, there are some weaknesses. The definition of the bilingual dictionary saying that "the lexical units of one language are defined or...


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