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BOOK REVIEWS207 This Calendar is an outstanding contribution to the study of California mission history. The author is well within his rights when he says of his book: "Though small in size, it (the Calendar) is important for the fuller understanding of Spain's last great mission field in the Indies" (p. ix). I sincerely hope that the Academy of American Franciscan History will be enabled to publish many more bibliographical works of the same high calibre as the present volume. Mathias Kiemen, O.F.M. St. Joseph's Seminary, Teutopolis, Illinois. The Unity of the Church in the New Testament—Colossians and Ephesians. By Stig Hanson. (Acta Seminara Neotestamentici, Upsaliensis, 14; Uppsala: Almquist & Wiksells Boktrycheri ab, 1946), pp. xi, 197. The author proposes to study the idea of unity in Pauline theology, and particularly the unity of the Church in Paul's Epistles to the Ephesians and to the Colossians. However, he first investigates conceptions of unity found in the Old Testament and in the teaching of Jesus in the Synoptic Gospels. In the Old Testament and in the literature of Judaism, monotheism is the source of all other unity. One common origin and belief in one Lord make the world into a unity. But this was soon broken by the opposition between Yahweh and idols, and by the divisions between peoples, particularly between Israel and the Gentiles; fundamentally this opposition is the antagonism between Yahweh and Satan. Besides cosmic unity there is also a national unity in Israel, manifesting itself primarily in the belief in the One God, Yahweh. But there is also disunity in the people, revealed by the schism between the Pharisees and the Sadducees, between the Pharisees and the common people. Thus the actualization of unity lies in the future, at the end of time, when the Messiah comes and the kingdom of God is established . In addition to removing all factors that destroy unity in Israel, the Messiah will represent the people, so that he may be said to be one with them—that is, by identity of representation, the relation existing between two parties when one represents the other and is identical with it in the condition of representation. On the other hand, the kingdom of God connotes the elimination of all oppositions both within and without Israel. In the teaching of Jesus the world has its fundamental unity of creation; but this, too, has been broken by the antagonism between God and Satan. However, God has created a new unity in the 208BOOK REVIEWS eschatological community of the disciples of the Son of Man. As the Messiah, Jesus incarnates the new Israel, which due to the identity of representation must be one. The disciples, called to imitate Him closely, in consequence constitute a unity around the Master. Due to their cultic sacramental character, meals also play a significant role in creating unity between Jesus and the disciples, and among them mutually. This is particularly true of the Lord's Supper, at which Jesus receives them into the New Convenant. Finally, there is an identity of representation between God and Jesus, his emissary; in the same way the Apostles sent by Jesus are identical with him. The relation between Jesus and the Church is important in understanding the unity of the Church, which must be one as Jesus is one. Unity, however, will be a perfect reality only with the appearance of the kingdom of God, which in its definite revelation is still in the future. This kingdom implies negatively the elimination of all hostility against God, positively that God's will be done. When the kingdom in an eschatological sense reveals itself, God's dominion will extend itself to the earth, after all opposition has been removed and God's will rules universally. The central point of Paul's thought of unity is monotheism: every other unity is based on that of God. Besides the unity of creation there is a unity of revelation in the world. Yet it is clear that disunity has entered the world; this disunity is expressed by the opposition between God and idols, sin, the Law, Satan with his demons, and the antichrist. However, the person and...


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