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Book Reviews137 Theology of Scotus. The author himself realizes that the latter limitation is regretful, since Scotus is in the first place a theologian. The booklet is subdivided into three parts: literature on more general bibliographies and léxica, works on the life and the writings of Scotus, and studies on his Philosophy. In reference to these topics, Schäfer Umits himself to German, Latin, French, Italian, EngUsh and Spanish Uterature (p. 3; actually he includes two Dutch studies, see p. 28). Schäfer completes the bibUography of Smeets (up to 1951 only; see p. 3), and is more systematic than his predecessor; but I would not say that this work renders Smeets superfluous. As an introduction to the study of Scotus, this bibUography certainly is worthwhile. A complete list, however, of the authentic works of Scotus (cf. p. 10—11 and 11—13), would have been greatly appreciated by a beginner . In this type of publication a number of slips seem to be unavoidable, though, sometimes, without any consequence; see e. g. p. 5 "Franciscana. Isegem, 1921—1924", read "Neerlandica Franciscana. Isegem, 1914—1924", and our "Franciscan Studies" is pubUshed at St. Bonaventure, which is some 400 miles from New York. Eligius M. Buytaert, O. F. M. Franciscan Institute Walram von Siegburg O. F. M. und seine Doktorpromotion an der Kölner Universität (1430—1435). Edited by Sophronius Ciasen O. F. M. Sonderdruck aus: Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 44 (1951) u. 45 (1952). It is not easy for us to become acquainted with the complicated process by which the medieval student of theology was promoted to the muchcoveted degree of Magister Theologiae. It is true, we know the statuta of several universities, but the regulations of the law are rather like a skeleton which lacks flesh and life. Only the concrete appUcation of the laws and regulations in individual cases can give us a true picture, especiaUy since laws are usuaUy not without exception. Certain exceptions, in fact, were expressly admitted, as in the case of the Mendicant Orders, and they must always be taken into account. Some of the privileges with which the Mendicant Orders were favored are most important when, for instance, one is trying to calculate the years of study of a scholastic master. For these and other reasons, Father Sophronius Ciasen, O. F. M., has done exceUent service to researchers in late Franciscan scholasticism by publishing the documents (mostly disputations and sermons) which led the Franciscan Walram of Siegburg through the various academic exercises and ceremonies to the magisterial dignity. It is probable that the personal autograph of Walram is preserved in Manuscript Stadtarchiv G. B. f. 175, fol. ia—32d of Cologne. In the first chapter of the present study the author gives a detailed description of the manuscript and adduces evidence in favor of its being an autograph of Walram himself. 138Franciscan Studies In the second chapter the author foUows step by step the entire curriculum of Walram's studies and especially the various disputations and sermons and such Uke at the final stage of his promotion. This latter part is exceptionaUy well done. Fr. Ciasen leads the reader, with the help of the Statuta of the University of Cologne and the documents in Walram's autograph , through all the performances the young doctor had to undergo; or rather, he gives an interpretation of the documents with the help of the Statuta. In any case, he succeeds in giving us a vivid description of Walram 's activities. In the third chapter he deals with the professors mentioned in the documents , viz. Arnold von Cloetinge, Arnold van Doom, Gottfried Schlüssel O. P., Heinrich von Xanten, Johann Schlechter, O. F. M., Johann von Wachtendonck and Johann von Winningen, O. P., and also of Walram's socii, that is, his feUow students, viz. Bernhard von Galen, Gottfried van Loo, O. Carm., Heinrich von Emmerich and Heinrich von Werl, O. F. M. This third chapter is of especial interest because of its wealth of biographical and bibliographical material. The fourth chapter consists of an edition of the disputations and Principia, etc. It shows that Walram was mostly interested in questions of grace and moral theology; another...


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