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252BOOK REVIEWS Owing to dearth of material the story of the individual martyrs had to be very unequal. But all that could be gathered has conscientiously been worked up Dy the author as is attested by the reference notes and the Bibliography (pp. 135-166). He himself corrected errors made in the older edition. Certainly future researches may unearth new sources of information but for the time being Fr. Habig's work is the most authoritative history on the subject and his "American Martyrology" is the most complete record in print. The reviewer is happy to state that he cannot find any flaw in Fr. Habig's book and recommends it most heartily to all lovers of American history. On page 17, Father Habig states that the Franciscans in 1786 had twice as many men and three times as many colleges and missions in Spanish America as the Jesuit Fathers. This Franciscan preponderance will be still greater, if we count the work of the poor Capuchins in their missions stretching from Louisiana to Brazil. In one province, in Venezuela, these sons of St. Francis have eclipsed the work of Franciscans, Jesuits and Dominicans combined (237 out of 347 missions among Indians were founded by the Capuchins). The Capuchin missions in eastern Venezuela became internationally known, when the Venezuela Boundary dispute under President Cleveland (1895 sq.) was settled on the strength of maps of Capuchin missions. John M. Lenhart, O.F.M. Cap. St. Augustine's Monastery, Pittsburg, Pa. Eastern Catholic Worship. By Donald Attwater. (New York: Devin-Adair Company, 1945. Pp. 224. $2.50.) The author, already well-known in this country, gives as the threefold object of his book: the encouragement of interest and understanding of Eastern worship, the furnishing of a handy reference book, and the increase of the private devotion of the readers. To reach these objectives he presents, after a general Introduction, a translation of the principal liturgies used at present by Catholics. Included are (what Latins call) the Common of the Mass of the Byzantine, Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopian, Syrian, Maronite, Chaldean, Malabar and (as an Appendix) Roman Liturgies. The treatment of the various rites is fairly complete and, although certain portions are omitted, a good general view is presented. However, for the understanding a comparative outline and interior connection between Eastern and Western Rites would offer a great help. It is exactly in this matter that confusion exists. Western Europeans and Americans often do not sufficiently realize that, with the exception of a few living in the larger cities, all Eastern Christians, including those of Russia, the Balkans and Near East, are very little educated especially in religious matters. This is the reason for the frequent repetitions and the long drawn-out instructional and prayer parts of the Liturgy. The text of the Byzantine Liturgy is translated from the original Greek. All others are retranslations of one or perhaps more translations . This is why the book is not quite suitable for deeper theological studies, but it is very well adapted to achieve the other ends which the BOOK REVIEWS253 author had in view. Notwithstanding a few minor shortcomings, Eastern Catholic Worship is recommendable to general readers. Kilian J. Hennrich, O.F.M. Cap. Our Lady of Sorrows Friary, New York, N.Y. Catholics and the Civil War. By Rev. Benjamin J. Blied, Ph.D. (Milwaukee , Wis.: private publ., 1945. Pp. 162.) The author prefaces these essays with the remark that "they are neither exhaustive, nor do they constitute an integrated narrative, but as a collection of fragments they may be helpful to others who wish to tell the story of the civil war in detail." They represent many hours of careful research in a field that has interested the Rev. Dr. Blied since he began to prepare his thesis for the degree of master of arts. They present the findings of the author regarding the bishops of the North and the South, the Catholic press in our country, the influencing of Europe, the Fenian Brotherhood, the charity in the armies, Wisconsin Catholics, and the mourning with the nation at the death of Lincoln. They will therefore be most useful to those who are interested in...


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