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BOOK REVIEWS251 original author, but also to the discrimination of those men who acquired their sense of the beautiful from a native tradition which so successfully withstood a policy of extermination directed against it for centuries. The romantic story of the vicissitudes of this text is fully and ably told by Fr. Canice Mooney in his critical edition of this ancient text. He has based his edition on the oldest surviving copy made directly from the original translation. In his elaborate Stemma Cod/cum he traces the relation of all surviving MSS. This work must have involved immense labour; and it is regrettable that after all his pains he did not enter into greater detail as to how he established all these MS. relationships. The greater part of this work, edited in Gaelic, will be a closed book for most American readers. But there is an English Appendix (pp. 323-366) containing a most up-to-date account of every aspect of the many problems connected with this text. The editor, not only treats of the diffusion and influence of the Gaelic translation, but also discusses the authorship, sources, diffusion and influence of the Latin original. No one interested in the world-wide influence of Franciscan literature can afford to neglect this scholarly work. Franciscan Friary, Dublin. Cuthbert Mc Grath, O.F.M. Heroes of the Cross: An American Martyrology. (Rev. ed.) By Marion A. Habig, O.F.M. Paterson, N.J.; St. Anthony Guild Press, 1945. Pp. 254. $2.50.) The new edition of Father Habig's delightful book is enlarged by seventy-nine pages. Essentially it is the story of the Franciscan Martyrs of North America, yet by including stories of non-Franciscan martyrs and by appending a complete list of all martyrs of the United States, it will have a still wider appeal to Catholic readers. Out of the one hundred and sixteen martyrs of the United States seventy-four belonged to the Order of Friars Minor. To these are to be added twelve missionaries who perished from hardships on their journeys and two who were wounded but recovered. In Canada two martyrs are listed, a Friar Minor and a Capuchin. In Mexico thirty-eight Friars Minor died the death of martyrs and in Central America eight Friars Minor. To these are added two Friars Minor of Canada who are not martyrs in the strict sense, one was tortured by the Iroquois but recovered, and the other died of exposure on his missionary trips. Friar Habig stresses the remarkable fact that the First martyrs of North America were Franciscans both in Mexico as in the United States and Canada. Yet they all were preceded by martyrs on the Antilles in 1516 and in Brazil in 1505; the two Franciscans murdered in Brazil on June 19, 1505, are the First or Proto-Martyrs of All America. Not all of these American martyrs were born in Europe. The Franciscan Augustine Ponze de Leon, killed in 1704 by the Apalaches, was born in Florida, and ten of the Franciscan missionaries killed by the Pueblos in 1680 were natives of Mexico. 252BOOK REVIEWS Owing to dearth of material the story of the individual martyrs had to be very unequal. But all that could be gathered has conscientiously been worked up Dy the author as is attested by the reference notes and the Bibliography (pp. 135-166). He himself corrected errors made in the older edition. Certainly future researches may unearth new sources of information but for the time being Fr. Habig's work is the most authoritative history on the subject and his "American Martyrology" is the most complete record in print. The reviewer is happy to state that he cannot find any flaw in Fr. Habig's book and recommends it most heartily to all lovers of American history. On page 17, Father Habig states that the Franciscans in 1786 had twice as many men and three times as many colleges and missions in Spanish America as the Jesuit Fathers. This Franciscan preponderance will be still greater, if we count the work of the poor Capuchins in their missions stretching from Louisiana to Brazil. In one province, in Venezuela, these...


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