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104BOOK REVIEWS These journeys, their findings and their results, are described in nine chapters . The two next chapters are devoted to the zeal of the minister general for regular observance and pastoral work, and to his promotion of studies and the apostolate of the pen among his brethren. He himself was the author of an exquisite life of St. Francis, and he began, but could not complete, a life of St. Clare as a companion volume. In his opinion regular observance could not be attained unless the friars were intent on performing their duty as preachers and in the confessional. In order that this might be accomplished adequately, he realized that studies had to be promoted. He insisted particularly on a reorganization and expansion of the seraphic minor seminaries. He watched carefully over the major seminaries. He was anxious to put the crowning seal of a university upon the studies of the order, even though he could not find the means to climb to this pinnacle. After his long term in office, Father Bernard was made titular archbishop of Stauropolis. He did not live long to enjoy the honor bestowed upon him by the Holy See, for he died the next year in his beloved Switzerland worn out by the many years of sustained effort for the benefit of the order he revered. His characteristic traits are summed up by the author as follows: "a gigantic capability for work with a never weakening endurance; a keen mind and an iron energy; a practical feeling and talent for organization; good common sense and prudence in difficult decisions and enterprises; a glowing zeal and self-sacrifice in promoting regular observance, studies, the home apostolate, and the foreign missions; courage and patience in trials and sufferings unto death." In writing this biography the venerable author has performed a difficult task judiciously and thoroughly. He has placed the subject of his sketch in the proper setting of the times. He has obliged the interested reader with many photographs. He has lightened the task of reference by a threefold index. He has given us as scientific and human a work as would be expected from this Franciscan author and experienced professor at the university of Freiburg in Switzerland. Theodore Roemer, O.F.M. Cap. St. Lawrence College, Mount Calvary, Wis. Mother of Carmel: A Portrait of St. Theresa of Jesus. By E. Allison Peers. New York: Morehouse-Gorham Co., 1946. Pp. xii+220. $2.50. In the field of biography two divergent schools can be admitted: the one making use of the elaborately documented and scientific method, the other being identified with the interpretive and subjectively creative form initiated by Lytton Strachey and popularized in our own day. Mr. Peers' book appears to strike a happy medium between these two methods. While aiming at interesting and instructing his reader without burying him in a mass of historical detail, he admits that he follows his own chronology "without attempting to justify it in any detail." However, he offers sufficient quotation and factual information to save his writing from being classed as fictionalized biography. The author makes it clear that he does not treat his subject's writings BOOK REVIEWS105 exhaustively but extracts traits sufficient to accumulate material for a finally complete picture of St. Theresa. He declares that he is presenting "only a simple biographical sketch, and not a treatise." With these acknowledgements on the part of the author in mind, the reader should not look for a definitive history of the Spanish mystic in this book. Mr. Peers, in speaking of St. Theresa as a writer, offers a valuable piece of advice for the literary critic when he says: "We must always judge a book ... in relation to its author's aim." That we find here an adequate biographical sketch of the subject is apparent. To attempt a sketch of any kind an artist must be in sympathy with and understand his subject to a fairly large degree. The humanity and sociability of the Saint appear on almost every page. She is revealed as one who always has the best interests of her fellow sisters in mind. Her genuine helpfulness is shown to be a...


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