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BOOK REVIEWS103 But if all this is said, it remains true that "though all these undertakings were zealously and unselfishly carried on for the welfare of the people, a fully qualified personnel of trained medical workers was for a long time the exception in Catholic missions." A few spelling mistakes, particularly of foreign names, should be corrected, e.g. Paul Hsii, Cambaluc, Ssu-ma Ch'ien, Choii dynasty, etc. The name Jean Terrence, S.J., should be changed to Johannes Terrentius, the family name being the latinized form of the German name Schreck. These critical remarks, however, detract nothing from the value of the book. In fact, both books deserve a wide circulation, and are a fine contribution to our literature on the missions. Bernward Willeke, O.F.M. Mt. St. Sepulchre, Washington, D.C. General und Erzbischof P. Bernard Christen von Andermatt (1837-1909) und die Erneuerung des Kapuzinerordens. By P. Hilarin Felder, O.F.M. Cap., Titularbischof von Gera. Schwyz: Drittordens-Zentrale, 1943. Pp. xvi+436. From the havoc wrought in the religious communities of the nineteenth century by persecutions and suppressions the Capuchin order did not emerge unscathed. In many places of Italy, Spain, France, and Germany, where the order had flourished in earlier years, it seemed shattered almost beyond the hope of repair. Into the midst of this distressing situation the Swiss Capuchin Father Bernard Christen of Andermatt was thrust as the minister general. During his long term of office (1884-1908), he restored order into this chaos, and the author does not hesitate to call him the second founder and pattern of the Capuchin order. This is the story told in this volume from original sources by the very competent Capuchin Bishop Hilarin Felder, who had personal experience of many events narrated in this book. After eight chapters on the early life of Father Bernard, the author launches into a description of his work as minister general. He tells the story without bias, bitterness, or unnecessary laudation. Reform was carried on in the curia generalizia and the disorganized provinces. One of the important factors in preserving unity was the founding of the Andecta. The renewal of spirit was based on the carefully revised ordinances of the general chapters and the insistence on their observance. Upon taking office, Father Bernard found the missions practically separated from the order and only 379 isolated Capuchins laboring in them. At the end of his term the number of Capuchin missionaries had grown to 914 priests and lay brothers in 36 mission districts. They were now directly dependent on the minister general, under the guidance of the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda , and the mission districts were confided to individual provinces of the order. This re-awakening and progress must be ascribed principally to the interest and indefatigable zeal of the minister general. The renewal of spirit in the order was accomplished through the lengthy and careful personal visitations of the provinces by Father Bernard. 104BOOK REVIEWS These journeys, their findings and their results, are described in nine chapters . The two next chapters are devoted to the zeal of the minister general for regular observance and pastoral work, and to his promotion of studies and the apostolate of the pen among his brethren. He himself was the author of an exquisite life of St. Francis, and he began, but could not complete, a life of St. Clare as a companion volume. In his opinion regular observance could not be attained unless the friars were intent on performing their duty as preachers and in the confessional. In order that this might be accomplished adequately, he realized that studies had to be promoted. He insisted particularly on a reorganization and expansion of the seraphic minor seminaries. He watched carefully over the major seminaries. He was anxious to put the crowning seal of a university upon the studies of the order, even though he could not find the means to climb to this pinnacle. After his long term in office, Father Bernard was made titular archbishop of Stauropolis. He did not live long to enjoy the honor bestowed upon him by the Holy See, for he died the next year in his beloved Switzerland...


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