Vatican-American relations were closer in the second half of the twentieth century than at any time in their history; they were said to have been particularly close during the presidency of Ronald Reagan and the pontificate of John Paul II, in light of their common anticommunist feelings. However, a closer look at the nature of the relationship indicates that, although the United States and the Vatican had a convergence of interests, this did not mean that the Holy See backed all American initiatives, for the Vatican pursued its own agenda and was not likely to change its stance simply to satisfy the United States.