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318BOOK REVIEWS We are grateful to Father Johannes Bendiek, O.F.M., for having translated this fine contribution of an outstanding Polish logician for the benefit of readers not acquainted with the Polish language. Father Salamucha, Professor at the University of Warsaw, was killed in the insurrection of 1944 at Warsaw. A disciple of Lukasiewicz, he belonged to a group of Catholic logicians who believe in a fruitful collaboration between scholastic and modern logic. The present contribution deals with twenty-seven theorems of the calculus of propositions known to Ockham. The symbolization is that of the Warsaw school and addedis anotherclos r to that used in this country. Salamucha proves that Ockham had a clear idea of material implication and a keen insight into the formalism of logic. Hamman, Adalbert, O.F.M.: La doctrine de l'Eglise et de l'Etat d'après le Breviloquium d'Occam. (Pp. 135-141). In this contribution, the author gives a brief summary of what he had previously written in a book having almost the same title. (Paris 1942). He concludes that Ockhams teaching concerning this problem is remarkably moderate in view of the extreme teachings of certain contemporary scholastics. Höhn, Rudolf, O.F.M.: Wilhelm Ockham in München. (Pp. 142-155). This article deals with the last days of Ockham's life. It gives good reasons for the date of Ockham's death on April 9, 1949, and furthermore that he died reconciled with the Church. Ockham's tomb was located in the choir of the Franciscan Church in Munich and before the Altar. In 1802, it was removed together with his remains to a not yet ascertained place. A few very instructive plates are added (Wilhelm Ockham: Ein Stich von Johannes Nepomuk Maag; Das alte Münchener Franziskanerklostei; Grabschrift Ockhams und ein Lageplan der Gräber im Chor; Eintragung im Münchener Toten-und Stifterbuch). Along with these articles, the Ockham number contains a list of the non-political writings of Ockham (translated from this reviewer's introduction to: The Tractatus de Successivis, Franciscan Institute Publication No. 1, 1944), and an excellent bibliography : Ockham-Literatur 1919-1949, compiled by Valens Heynck, O.F.M. We sincerely congratulate the Franziskanische Studien on this valuable contribution to the history of scholasticism. PHILOTHEUS BOEHNER, O.F.M. The Franciscan Institute, St. Bonaventure, New York. G.W. Leibniz, Textes Inédits d'après les Manuscripts de la Bibliothèque Provinciale de Hanovre. By Gaston Grua. Paris: Presses Universitaires des France, 1948. Pp. 936 in two volumes. The author, of the University of Grenoble, began his researches in 1937 and was able to complete them in the years 1945-47. He has carefully edited number of manuscripts, of which some were published previously, sometimes in rather inaccessible editions, some are new. His work deserves the gratitude of all students of Leibniz but also of those interested in the intellectual movements of the seventeenth century in general. From the notes Leibniz made on works he read, from letters he wrote on such works or on other topics and which have not been published before, as well as from letters addressed to Leibniz, one comes to know a good deal of the controversies, the problems, and ideas which were alive at this time. The author has taken unusual care to ascertain the relations obtaining between the various texts and the published works or writings of Leibniz . Many of the new documents deal with questions Leibniz later treated in BOOK REVIEWS319 published wotks; one comes to know more of his procedure, chiefly by the corrections and deletions which are noted in the present edition. More than ever one realizes the astonishing width of interest, the conscientiousness, and the extent of reading done by Leibniz. The latter comprises also many Catholic works on theology and philosophy, though seldom of the original sources. Leibniz refers, for instance, several times to St. Augustine; but a note, undated but of a rather late time, reveals that he was unaquainted up to then with the Confessiones, which impressed him deeply; also, as the editor remarks, he did not know St. Augustine's commentaties on Genesis. The excellent index lists of...


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