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WILLIAM OF SAINT-THIERKY AND THE AUTHOR OF THE SUMMA SENTEMlARbM Literary and Doctrinal Relations Among the authors of the first half of the twelfth century William of Saint- Thierry is certainly one of the better known; at least the principal circumstances and dates associated with his life can without too great difficulty be reconstructed. Born at Liège, he at first became monk of the monastery of the Benedictines of St. Nazaire at Reims. In 1119, he was elected abbot of St. Thierry near that same town. In 1135 he joined the Cistercians of Signy in the Diocese of Reims, - a retirement undertaken against the advice of his friend St. Bernard, — where he died toward the year 1148. Of his many works, all written with a good deal of personal unction, but one shall hold our interest here, namely his Liber de sacramento altaris.2 On the personal testimony of the author,3 this tract on the eucharist appeared a little after his letter remonstrating Rupert of Deutz for some less correct expressions used by the latter in his be of fir i ? ^. ! Since Rupert died probably in 1129, and most certainly before 1134, the work of William dates from the time whenhewas still abbotof St. Thierry (1119-1135). A. Wilmart places it in the year 1128. 6 Notwithstanding the fact that the LiI^ r .Ip sacramenta altaris passes for one of the most important tracts of the epoch, until now it does not seem to have provoked any 1.On the life and works of William of Saint-Thierry see J. de Ghellinck, L'F.ssor de la litt érature latine au XIf siècle, Bruxelles 1946, t. I, p. 186-18". 2.PL 180, 343-366. 3.Liber de sacrant, ait., Prol. (PL 180, 343-344 D): "Cum nuper, te ipsa exigente, cuidani fratri breviter de sacramentis scripsissem..." 4.PL 180, 341-344. 5.Cf. A. Manser in Lexikon für Theol. und kirche, IX, 15. 6.La série et la date des ouvrages de Guillaume de Saint-Thierry, j'iri Archives de la France iiionustique (Revue Ma'uillon), XIV, 1924, 15~'-167. 241 242WILLUM OF SAINT-THIERRY particularly attentive study. Having sounded it here and there from different points of view, we are led to the conviction that a literal and doctrinal examination would be truly worthwhile for abetter knowledge of the history of theology before Peter Lombard. By way of proof we present here the results of a comparative enquiry made into the tract of William and some chapters of the Summa Sententiarum. The Summa, due probably to Otho of Lucques, appeared some ten or twelve years after the tract of William, toward 1140. Between these two almost contemporary writings then, there exist some acute doctrinal and literary contacts. This in itself has its importance. On the one hand, it permits us to augment the list of sources, so difficult of recovery, of the Summa Sententiarum; we have there an advantageous result in view of the considerable influence exercised by this writing on the theology of the twelfth century and especially on Peter Lombard. On the other hand, the dependence of the Summa upon William of St. Thierry furnishes precious information for the genesis and evolution of certain doctrines pertaining to the eucharist and as yet but insufficiently known. 1. Literary Borrowings The Liber de sacramento altaris of William of St. Thierry has furnished the Summa Sententiarum a discreet but nonetheless real contribution. All the borrowings occur, as one would expect, in the section where the Summ. a treats of the eucharist, viz. in chapters 2 to 9 of the VIth tractatus. 7 In line with his usual manner, Otho of Lucques did not proceed with massive borrowings. In a general way, he contented himself with being inspired by the text and the ideas of his model. Here and there however he inserted either entire phrases or turns of expressions taken textually from the tract of William. Since these latter borrowings are the most valuable in pointing out the literary dependence, a list is here dressed of them with the corresponding texts from the Liber de sacramento altaris. Summa Sententiarum, tr. VILiber de sacramento...


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