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Book Reviews307 translation evidences scholarly precision in declaring the Seraphic Doctor's doctrine. Part Three analyzes the "Lumen" according to the mind of St. Bonaventure. Part Four culminates the thesis, which intends to "prove that the arts or all secular studies must be grouped under theology." This is shown in the three chapters: the Relation of Philosophy to Theology, the Theory of the "reductio" and the "reductio" proper. The present reviewer enthusiastically received and perused this delightful volume. Nor was he disappointed·— either in the pleasant appearance of the cover or the careful and attentive presentation of Bonaventurian doctrine. May others derive similar pleasure in accepting this new volume of the Works of Saint Bonaventure. Edward M. Wilson Cannon College, Erie, Pa. Van Roo, Wm., S.J., Grace and Original Justice according to St. Thomas. Analecta Gregoriana, Vol. LXXV, (Rome, 1955), pp. 211. This doctoral dissertation proposes a compromise solution to the 40year -old controversy on St. Thomas' concept of original justice. Both parties to the debate allowed that original justice and sanctifying grace are really distinct,but they could not agree on what kind of a real distinction. Martin, Bittremieux, and Kors, who first raised the question, held that the Angelic Doctor distinguished the two gifts by a real, adequate distinction, such as is used to describe the relationship between an efficient cause and its effect. Others defended the more traditional interpretation, which posits a real but inadequate distinction, such as exists between a formal cause and the subject it informs. Although many think with Cyril Vollert, S. J., (whose work, The Doctrine of Hervaeus Natalis on Primitive Justice and Original Sin (Rome, 1947) offers the best historical introduction to the controversy) that the weight of the arguments favored the real, inadequate distinction, Father Van Roo does not feel that the debate resulted in a satisfactory solution. Basing his solution on "a wider study of the texts of St. Thomas" (p. 10), Van Roo answers the problem in terms of a threefold causality of grace. "In so far as it perfects the essence of the soul its causality is strictly formal. As the principle from which the virtues proceed it is somehow active or efficient. As the first principle of meritorious operation it exercises 3?8Book Reviews a strictly efficient causality" (p. 195). From this broad premise, the author concludes that sanctifying grace is the formal cause of original justice "in so far as it constituted the supernatural life" (p. 201). But grace was also an efficient cause: "... somehow an active cause of the precession of the infused virtues, strictly an efficient or moving cause in all meritorious operation" (p. 202). However attractive this solution appears, one hesitates to accept it unreservedly. Arguments based on analogy, prevalent in this thesis, are questionable when pressed beyond a certain point. Particularly, one wonders to what extent Adam's justification parallels the justification of the sinner; and the state of innocence, the present state of regenerated man. Berard Marthaler, O. F. M. Conv. Assumption Seminary, Chaska, Minnesota ...


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