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MOTION, TIME AND PLACE ACCORDING TO WILLIAM OCKHAM INTRODUCTION Objectives, Sources and Procedures1 There exists no dearth of studies, exhibiting the highest degree of scholarship, devoted to expositions and evaluations of William Ockham's logic. Again related questions, ontological and epistemológica!, as they arise for consideration within the context of his logical writings, 1 Note on Abbreviations. Quodl.refers to Ockham's Quodlibeta septem, Strasbourg, 1491 (H. 11941). A reference to this work, followed by: "II, qu. 6," means: "Quodlibetum II, Question 6." Sent.refers to Ockham's Quaestiones et decisiones in IV libros sententiarum , Lyons, 1495 (H. 11942). A reference to this work, followed by: "I, dist. 17, qu. 8, b, "means: "Book I, Distinction 17, Question 8, Article b." Phil. Nat. refers to Ockham's Philosophia Naturalis (Summulae in libros physicorum) , Rome, 1637. A reference to this work, followed by: "III, 14," means "Part HI, Chapter 14." In transcribing from the three works listed above, all contractions have been expanded. Punctuation has been modernized, and, in many cases, added. All translations have been kept as close to the spirit of the original latin as was possible. Tractatus. refers to Ockham's Tractatus de Successivis, edited by Philotheus Boehner; Franciscan Institute Publication no. 1, St. Bonaventure , N. Y. (1944). Logic.refers to Ockham's Summa totius logicae, (pars prima), edited by Philotheus Boehner; Franciscan Institute Publication no. 2, St. Bonaventure, N. Y. (1951). Altaris.refers to Ockham's De Sacramento altaris, edited and translated by T. Bruce Birch; Lutheran Literary Board, Burlington, Iowa, (1930). Expositio. refers to Ockham's Expositio super libros Physicorum. The Prologue, edited by G. E. Mohan, is printed in Franciscan Studies, vol. XXVI (1945) 235 sqq. Those portions which I have used that have reference to Text 71, are edited by E. A. Moody, and appear in his article, "Ockham and Aegidius of Rome," Franciscan Studies, vol. 9, no. 4 (1949), 417 sqq. References to both of these excerpts from Ockham's Expositio , followed by a page number, refers to the pagination of the article in which they appear. Quaestiones. refers to Ockham's Quaestiones super libros Physicorum. Those portions relevant to Text 71 were edited by E. A. Moody and appear in the same article as above. A reference to this work, followed by: "Qu. 89, p. 429," means: "(Ockham's) Question 89, p. 429 (of Professor Moody's article)." 213 214H. SHAPIRO have attracted the interest of many capable scholars. But that these studies — logical, ontological and epistemological — represent but a (not unimportant) portion of what Ockham had to say — a portion inadequate for a full understanding of his contribution to phüosophical thought — is evidenced by the fact that there yet obtains profound disagreement with respect to his position concerning certain fundamental philosophical issues. For example: two outstanding medieval scholars, K. Michalski and E. Gilson, persist in viewing Ockham's phüosophy as displaying a propaedeutic "scepticism;" two equally capable scholars on the other hand, E. A. Moody and P. Boehner, are vigorously opposed to this view of Ockham as a "humean precursor." Patently, the two adopted and authoritatively rendered stands are mutuaUy exclusive: Ockham cannot have been both sceptical and not-sceptical. Now the present study is not undertaken as an attempt to resolve this, or any other equaUy interesting and disputed question relative to Ockham's actual views (although the author cannot always avoid partisanship as wUl become apparent in the sequel), but rather it takes its origin from the observation that both sides, in discussing any moot point almost invariably seek substantiation for their position by having recourse to Ockham's logical writings. This suggests that further and detailed examination of what Ockham said in his other writings would most certainly prove helpful for the task of determining with a greater degree of precision than was hitherto possible his signal contribution to inteUectual history. It is the general aim of the present study to widen the field of debate by examining an area of Ockham's thought which has not yet been accorded adequate scholarly exposition. Ever since the appearance of Pierre Duhem's pioneering studies — studies ülustrating the medieval origins of modern-classical physics — it has been...


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