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868 LANGUAGE, VOLUME 68, NUMBER 4 (1992) with the translator's intuitive response to a text and how this response is conditioned by the (Western) culture enveloping the translator. Thus, when choosing a text or a phrase, a translator responds 'to impulses sent by his body: a given word or phrase feels right' (xii). This aspect constitutes an essential part of R's theoretical structure. In the rest of the chapter he discusses and rejects dualism (e.g. mind vs. body), instrumentalism (the translator as a mere instrument), and perfectionism (the striving for a 'perfect' translation), concepts which, for him, represent the ideological programming that translators and theorists have been exposed to over the centuries. Ch. 2 emphasizes the dialogue between the translator and the source language (SL) writer, and the translator and the target language (TL) reader. R discusses writings by Luther and Goethe which he considers as markers of two 'paradigm shifts' in translation theory, and finally suggests that his book may bring about a third. The last two chapters deal, in R's words, with more practical aspects of translation. First the translator should free himself or herself from culture-bound preconceptions about translation , and then s/he should place himself or herself squarely in the middle of the active, creative process of translation. In turning the SL text into a TL text, the translator may use such interpretive tools as metonymy, synecdoche, metaphor , irony, hyperbole, and metalepsis when engaging in a dialogue with the SL writer (Ch. 3). With respect to the TL receptor (Ch. 4), R again stresses the role of the translator, who is not by any means a passive conveyer of information but tries (or should try) to persuade the TL reader ofwhatever s/he thinks is appropriate in a given situation. R discusses at length such points as conversion, subversion, and diversion in this context, and defines his ethics of translation as 'ethical growth out of controlled obedience to cultural ideas' (201). This largely nonlinguisticbook's main achievement is its challenge ofmore conventional translation theory. R explores the historical foundations of translation in considerable detail and articulates his ideas in a readable manner, but with relatively few analyzed examples. In his rejection of traditional translation equivalence and insistence on the crosscultural nature of translation, he echoes such authors as Mary Snell-Hornby, Hans G. Hrjnig, and Paul Kussmaul , but he does not mention them. The work is not so much a full-fledged translation theory as it is a plea for a more active role of the translator and a more innovative use of the (target) language. Even though R claims to be writing about the whole range of translation, technical to literary, his book deals mainly with literary translation. The practical value of the book's second part is almost exclusively determined by the translator's individual task; the translator of nonliterary texts will probably not consider himself or herself the addressee of these thoughts. Despite its shortcomings, this is a stimulating book to read. [Detlef Stark, Universität Hannover .] Eurogrammar: The relative and cleft constructions of the Germanic and Romance languages. By R. J. C. Smits. Dordrecht: Foris, 1989. Pp. i, 470. Paper $29.90. The stated purpose of this book is to provide an overview of the 'state of the art' of syntactic studies ofthe Germanic and Romance languages within the framework of Chomskyan Government -Binding (GB) theory. It is intended for a wide audience, including theoretical linguists, applied linguists, designers of teaching materials , and translators. It is envisioned as the first volume in an ultimately encyclopedic survey of the syntax of these languages, labelled Eurogrammar . The domain of such an ambitious work is huge, and the author has pared it down to a workable subpart: relative and cleft constructions in thirteen languages—Catalan, Danish , German, English, Spanish, French, Icelandic , Italian, Dutch, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, and Swedish. There is a great deal of data and not every construction is illustrated for every language, as the author states. This is understandable, given the large number of constructions covered in such detail. The first of the three chapters, 'An introduction on the syntactic framework' [sic] (1-36), is an introduction to...


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