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840 LANGUAGE, VOLUME 68, NUMBER 4 (1992) the assumption that null Agr is an X-1 in Italian but an Xo in French, the Italian vs. French contrast in infinitives follows. This analysis, however suggestive , raises quite a few problems. French gerunds require 'long' movement despite the fact that their topmost functional position (Agr under B's analysis) is null. The approach does not explain why non-theta assigners can still move to null Agr in French infinitives. It does not provide a common account of the identical lexical restrictions on (V to) T to Agr in French infinitives and on V to T (to Agr) in English tensed clauses.6 Above all, at this stage it remains nonexplanatory, since the learnability problem is not tackled: why should French and Italian children treat their (null) Agr and their (morphologically indistinguishable) infinitival endings so differently? REFERENCES Baker, Mark. 1988. Incorporation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Belletti, Adriana. 1992. Verb positions; NP positions: Evidence from Italian. Universit é de Genève, ms. Chomsky, Noam. 1989. Some notes on the economy of derivations and representations. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 10.43-74. Frampton, John. 1991. Relativized minimality: A review. The Linguistic Review 8.146 . Iatridou, Sabine. 1990. On Agr(P). Linguistic Inquiry 21.551-76. Kayne, Richard S. 1989. Notes on English agreement. City University of New York, MS. ------. 1991. Italian negative imperatives and clitic climbing. City University of New York, ms. Pollock, Jean-Yves. 1989. Verb movement, universal grammar and the structure of IP. Linguistic Inquiry 20.365-424. Roberts, Ian. 1985. Agreement parameters and the development of English modal auxiliaries . Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 3.21-58. ------. 1993. Verbs and diachronic syntax. Dordrecht: Reidel, to appear. Selkirk, Elisabeth. 1982. The syntax of words. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Sportiche, Dominique. 1988. A theory of floating quantifiers and its corollaries for constituent structure. Linguistic Inquiry 19.425-49. Zanuttini, Raffaella. 1991. Syntactic properties of sentential negation: A comparative study of Romance negation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania dissertation. UFR Anglais Université de Haute Bretagne, Rennes II 6, avenue Gaston-Berger 35043 Rennes Cedex France [Received 18 March 1992; revision received 15 May 1992. Syntax: A functional-typological introduction, vol. 2. By Talmy Givón. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins; 1990. Pp. xxv, 465-1017. Reviewed by Jeffrey Heath, University of Michigan The second (and final) volume of this work appears six years after Vol. 1 (1984; reviewed by me in Language 62:160-63, 1986). Pagination is consecu6 N. 82 of Ch. 1 suggests that French T could be analyzed either as an Xo or as an X '. This would incorrectly predict optional verb movement in French tensed clauses as well as infinitives. REVIEWS841 five, so the current installment is a little over 500 pages of text. In the interval, the classroom value of the first volume has been limited by its incompleteness. The two-volume organization seems to be dictated as much by sheer size as by a natural breaking point (though multiclause syntax tends to occur after the division); topics such as NPs, subordinated clauses, and voice were deferred to the second volume. The question facing classroom instructors, now that the set is complete, is whether some portions of the first volume have become dated. Fortunately, while G acknowledges some changes in his thinking, the time lapse is not fatal. A functional-typological analysis is interpretive and low on notational trappings ; a mature theory in this mold will not change radically in a six-year period. (One might consider, in contrast, how a two-volume textbook on formal syntax would have fared under similar publication circumstances—one pictures an author prefacing Vol. 2 with the remark that the analysis of Vol. 1 is still basically true, except that affixes instead ofverbs and nouns are now the phrasal heads.) Vol. 1 had the following chapters: 1, 'Background'; 2, 'Methodological preliminaries '; 3, 'Word classes'; 4, 'Simple sentences: Predications and case roles'; 5, 'Case-marking typology'; 6, 'Word-order typology'; 7, 'Informationtheoretic preliminaries to discourse pragmatics'; 8, 'Tense-aspect-modality'; 9, 'Negation'; 10, 'Pronouns and grammatical agreement'; and 11, 'Definiteness and referentiality'. The present volume has ten chapters, Chs. 12-21, to be discussed below...


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