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BOOK NOTICES 211 have influenced Sanskrit, and even there such influence could only have been operative in the later Old Indo-Aryan period. T therefore leaves open the possibility of some unknown prehistoric ad- or substratum influence as Indo-Aryan speakers entered India from the Northwest. In his syntactic analysis of the gerund, T reveals a familiarity with a wide range of theoretical literature on syntax, semantics, pragmatics , and discourse structure. This breadth of reading in linguistic theory, joined with an Indologist 's knowledge of Sanskrit and even Dravidian literature, is a combination that one rarely sees today, and it has here produced a tour de force. My criticisms relate more to style than substance. The book reads like an unrevised dissertation and is far longer than it needed to have been. The longwinded survey of research, with its sixteen sections, each devoted to a different scholar, could have been made much more compact. Chs. 1-5 contain 715 examples which, because of the discourse-level function of the gerund, require as many as six lines of transliterated Sanskrit. Since these are not taken from any one text or genre, but span much of Sanskrit literature, the task of reading the book becomes daunting, and at a certain point, unless s/he is under no time constraints, the reader will simply start reading translations rather than the Sanskrit. Adding to the difficulty is T's English prose style, replete with long and complex sentences. A fifteen-page section on retroflexion in Indo-Aryan and Dravidian does little to further the discussion of the gerund. The points just mentioned will probably inhibit this book from gaining a large readership. It is therefore to be hoped that the author will take up individually in a series of articles many of the points raised here. But even on the basis of this study T wins the reader's respect, so that one looks forward to reading much of interest and significance from his pen in the future. [JaredS. Klein, The University of Georgia.] Language attitudes in the Dutch language area. Ed. by Roeland van Hout and Uus Knops. (Topics in Sociolinguistics, 5.) Dordrecht: Foris, 1988. Pp vi, 202. DfI. 48.00. Thirteen researchers from the Netherlands and Belgium have contributed to this volume of language attitude studies carried out in their countries. According to the text on the back cover, the book is supposed to meet 'the growing need for cumulative data on diverse language areas in the field of attitude research', and the contributors have certainly made an attempt to integrate their findings with those of research carried out in other parts ofthe world, especially North America, both by providing summary background information for readers not familiar with the Dutch language area and by paying considerable attention to methodological concerns. The introductory chapter by the editors, in particular, not only introduces the individual contributions but also provides a brief description ofthe Dutch language area (the Netherlands and Flanders, the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium ), and gives an overview of the various methods and techniques used for research on language attitudes, their determinants, and their corollaries. Special attention is given to the problem of the tenuous relationship between attitude and behavior, a theme that runs as a common thread through the second halfof the book. The first half, 'Determinants of language attitudes ', begins with the book's only historical contribution, written by one of the leading Dutch-speaking linguists. Guido Geerts, who describes the political struggles behind language legislation in Belgium from 1713 until 1930. In addition to listing the historical facts, he makes an attempt at unraveling the political developments of the 19th century by speculating about the shifts in attitude among Flemish intellectuals. The other contributions in the first half deal with attitudes of Flemish high-school students in Brussels (Y. Persoons), language attitudes in Friesland (D. Gorter & J. Ytsma), alternative ways of bringing about change in the attitudes of future teachers toward dialect speakers (H. Munstermann), the relative importance of pronunciation , prosody, and voice quality for the attribution of social status and personality characteristics (R. van Bezooijen), and attitudes towards regional variation in Dutch pronunciation (U. Knops). The most interesting papers...


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