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REVIEWS937 [ + ex], which in English must not be retained through more than one cycle of a phonological derivation (Hayes 1980). In Spanish, the antepenultimate stress of adjectives such as simbólico 'symbolic' and húmedo 'damp' stems from the extrametricality ofthe respective penultimate vowels ? e. Is this feature to be removed in the phonological derivation of simbólico -* simbólicamente 'symbolically' or húmedo —» húmedamente 'damply'? Whatever merit such questions might have, and notwithstanding the healthy state offlux prevalent in generative phonology (e.g., questions have been raised challenging the status of the foot level in prosodie structures), Harris' contributions will unequivocally pave the way for the future study and investigation of phonological topics in Hispanic linguistics, and possibly in Romance phonology as well. REFERENCES Granda, Germán de. 1966. La estructura silábica. (Revista de Filología Española, anejo 81.) Madrid. Harris, James W. 1969. Spanish phonology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ------ . 1974. Morphologization ofphonological rules: An example from Chicano Spanish. Linguistic studies in Romance languages, edited by R. J. Campbell et al., 8-27. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Hayes, Bruce P. 1980. A metrical theory of stress rules. MIT dissertation. Hooper, Joan B. 1976. An introduction to natural generative phonology. New York: Academic Press. ------ , and Tracy Terrell. 1976. Stress assignment in Spanish: A natural generative analysis. Glossa 10.64-110. Malmberg, Bertil. 1948. La structure syllabique de l'espagnol. Boletim de Filología 9.99-120. Navarro Tomás, Tomás. 1968. Studies in Spanish phonology. Miami: University of Miami Press. Saporta, Sol, and Heles Contreras. 1962. A phonological grammar of Spanish. Seattle: University of Washington Press. [Received 4 October 1983.] The other tongue: English across cultures. Edited by Braj B. Kachru. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982. Pp. xv, 358. $17.50. Reviewed by William C. Ritchie, Syracuse University This is an extremely useful and stimulating collection of twenty papers on the acquisition, use and social functions of non-native varieties of English (NNVE's)—e.g. Indian and African English. As Charles A. Ferguson notes in his foreword, the rapid spread of English as a world language has led to an equally rapid increase in the importance of NNVE's, so that 'English is less and less regarded as a European language, and its development is less and less determined by the usage of its native speakers' (p. x). In Kachru's words, this anthology is 'both the culmination of a collective effort in shared research interests, and a step toward my long-standing personal goal of understanding English across cultures' (xiii). In fact, twelve of the contributions to the book are substantially revised versions of papers given at a conference organized by K, and held in conjunction with the 1978 LSA Institute at Champaign-Urbana. 938LANGUAGE, VOLUME 60, NUMBER 4 (1984) A major purpose for the collection is the 'legitimation' of NNVE's both as local standards (hence, as local models for the teaching of English as a second language), and as objects of scholarly attention and research. The first concern is clearly a matter of social policy, and is directed primarily at teachers of English as a second language. The second is directed at linguists, sociolinguists, second-language researchers, and other scholars interested in the general topic of language spread. Over-all, the volume serves this purpose very well indeed. The first major section of the book, 'English in non-native contexts: Directions and issues', contains four papers: Joshua Fishman, 'Sociology of English as an additional language', 15-22; Peter Strevens, 'The localized forms of English ', 23-30; B. B. Kachru, 'Models for non-native Englishes', 31-57; and Cecil Nelson, 'Intelligibility and non-native varieties of English', 58-76. Fishman describes the current world language situation as 'an international sociolinguistic balance of power' (15), both influencing and influenced by the association of English with 'technological modernity and power'. Also contributing to the situation are 'the local regulation of the use of English and the special protection of local indigenous languages Strevens notes a number of variables which determine both forms and functions of distinct ('localized') types of English, as well as variables which condition individual differences among speakers of a single...

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Additional Information

ISSN
1535-0665
Print ISSN
0097-8507
Pages
pp. 937-940
Launched on MUSE
2015-04-01
Open Access
No
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