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Abstract

This study indicates that TV sportscasters (N = 272) are extremely satisfied in their jobs. Perceived organizational support and management's commitment to local sports coverage contributed to that satisfaction. Work-family conflict, role overload and job demands had little influence on sportscasters' dissatisfaction. Market size, airtime allowed and job title did not appear to influence satisfaction levels. The authors conclude that work autonomy and a perception of support from TV management is what keep sportscasters satisfied.

As few as 15 years ago, newsrooms throughout the United States in a variety of market sizes employed sports staffs consisting of three or more on-air talent positions. During that time, television stations have followed the same formula in their primary newscasts—a hard news block, a weather segment and a sports segment. What has changed is the manner in which consumers get their information. In years past, it was acceptable for sports anchors to deliver old news about games that had been played sometimes two or three days before the broadcast. No longer does the consumer need to watch the local sportscast to get the "home team" results. The Internet has taken the place of immediacy for those seeking basic game information and statistics.

A 2007 Pew Research Center study of local TV news determined that early evening news, the traditional dinner-time newscasts, saw a loss in ratings and share in every sweeps month (February, May, July and November). Those programs, indeed, seem to be bearing the brunt of changes in consumer lifestyles and viewing habits—people getting home too late to [End Page 23] catch the news or not tuning in to the news even when they are at home ("Local TV," 2007). The one segment within these broadcasts being affected most is sports. Some now consider the sports segment as the time for viewers to channel surf.

While some stations have eliminated sports, others have reduced the time (Schultz & Sheffer, 2009). Reduced on-air time does not equate to a reduced workload. Local responsibilities require sportscasters to travel to events and games late into the night and on weekends. To generate even a two-minute sports segment, a sports anchor may need to get video from five to six sources. The sports department receives little assistance from others in the news department in the day-to-day operations. There is no assignment desk or producer for sports anchors, who must coordinate their local responsibilities along with downloading and editing the national feed for stories of importance with more than regional interest.

Sports personnel work long and almost hidden hours, not seen by the other anchors and management. They are expected to cover the local high school football game four hours from the station on Friday night, and be on the sidelines for the noon Saturday college football game. Working under these challenging conditions would seemingly diminish job satisfaction, leading to a reduction in work quality/quantity, and perhaps a job turnover.

In their extensive study on job satisfaction, Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman (1959) developed the Herzberg motivation-hygiene theory. The motivation-hygiene theory establishes the premise that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are separate elements determined by intrinsic and extrinsic influences. Herzberg et al. hypothesized that intrinsic or motivational elements, such as recognition or achievement, are instrumental in motivating workers to do the work, and are directly connected to job satisfaction. Extrinsic or hygiene factors, such as salary or company policy, are instrumental in job dissatisfaction.

This study will examine life issues that influence sportscasters' [End Page 24] job satisfaction, including role overload, job demands, work-family conflict, organizational support and management's commitment to local coverage. The Herzberg motivation-hygiene theory will direct the intrinsic and extrinsic elements that affect job satisfaction.

Literature Review

Journalism job satisfaction studies date to the early 1960s when Samuelson (1962) recognized an exodus of newspaper journalists to other careers. Samuelson developed a measuring instrument to examine 13 attitudinal areas of satisfaction. Of the 223 journalism graduates in the study, from 1950 to 1961, 72 had changed careers.

Johnstone, Slawski and Bowman's (1976) seminal study involving more than 1,300 journalists examined satisfaction in terms of professional standards, editorial constraints and concrete rewards, such as salary, gender, and education. They reported that journalistic standards are associated with satisfaction; older journalists are more accepting of editorial constraints such as deadlines, editing and story selection, while low salaries cause dissatisfaction among younger journalists. Women are more satisfied in their work than men and journalists with the strongest educational backgrounds are more satisfied than those with less education. Johnstone et al. concluded that between 20 to 25% of young journalists question their commitment to the profession. They wrote, "Dissatisfaction within this group does not seem to stem from economic opportunities, but job dissatisfaction for many young newsmen has to do more with professional considerations—discrepancies between journalistic ideals and day-to-day practices" (p. 154).

Johnstone et al. also reported that in five years, 82.8% still expected to be working in news media. In terms of jobs satisfaction, about 49% said they were "very satisfied" and about 39% said they were "fairly (moderately) satisfied." However, for journalists [End Page 25] 25-29 years old, 23.8% said they expected to be working outside of news media in five years or were undecided.

Weaver and Wilhoit's examinations of job satisfaction date back nearly three decades, beginning with their 1982-83 study involving 1,001 newsroom workers. Compared to the Johnstone study, Weaver and Wilhoit (1986) reported that job satisfaction among journalists dropped substantially as 40% said they were "very satisfied" with their jobs. A major predictor of satisfaction for those 40 and under in the Weaver and Wilhoit study was their perception of how well news organizations informed the public. Also, job satisfaction among younger journalists hinged on the autonomy of selecting stories and the independence to determine the story's emphasis.

Weaver and Wilhoit's findings diverted from Johnstone's in terms of salary, which was not a predictor of satisfaction among young journalists. For older journalists, salary was still a predictor of satisfaction, but the relationship was not as strong as previous studies. Weaver and Wilhoit (1986) reported other predictors of satisfaction included frequent communication with supervisors and organizational esteem. They wrote: "Professionalism factors on the job—such as the importance of autonomy and the estimate of how well the employing organization is doing in informing the public—appear to have become stronger predictors of work satisfaction" (p. 101).

In their follow-up study, Weaver and Wilhoit (1996) reported a dramatic shift in journalists' job satisfaction. About 27% of journalists said they were "very satisfied" with their work, which was 22% lower than Johnstone's study. This study also saw the percentage of journalists intending to leave the industry within five years double to 21% compared with the 1982-83 study. Of the journalists in the 40-to-45 age group, more than 25% had intentions of working outside the news media within five years.

By the time Weaver, Beam, Brownlee, Voakes and Wilhoit (2007) conducted their study, journalists' job satisfaction had rebounded [End Page 26] some. One-third said they were "very satisfied" with their work and more than 50% said they were "fairly satisfied." More specifically, about 83% of those working in broadcast (news and public affairs departments) said they were either "very satisfied" or "fairly satisfied" in their jobs. The study also recorded a shift among those intending to leave the news media within the next five years. Weaver et al. (2007) reported that 17.2% expressed intentions to leave, a 4 percentage point drop from the 1996 study. Of those intending to leave their profession, only 14% of broadcasters expected to be out of media within five years. Among other media groups such as newspapers, news magazines and radio, only those at news services (5%) had a lower rate of intentions to leave than broadcasters.

Overall, all the journalists (newspaper and broadcast included) cited pay, job security, stress and burnout, and an unfavorable work environment, such as deadlines and hours, as reasons to leave the profession. Weaver et al. (2007) wrote:

Despite the fact that job satisfaction rose over all, women journalists rated their level of satisfaction below that of men, and the youngest journalists—those under 25—tended to be considerably more pleased with their jobs than journalists in the next age group, the 25-34-year-old. Given the close connection between job satisfaction and intent to leave the profession, media managers should be concerned about these gaps

(p. 124).

For 25 years, the job satisfaction work of Weaver, Wilhoit and their fellow authors has been widely recognized. However, in those studies job satisfaction was measured by narrow survey questions: "All things considered, how satisfied are you with your present job—would you say very satisfied, fairly satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied or very dissatisfied" (Weaver, et al., 2007, p. 264; Weaver and Wilhoit, 1996, pg. 257; Weaver and Wilhoit, 1986, p. 175). A one-question, self-reported measurement has inherent limitations. [End Page 27]

This study will examine sportscasters' perceptions of job satisfaction from a foundation built upon a portion of the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire (MOAQ) developed by Cammann, Fichman, Jenkins and Klesh (1983). Cammann et al.'s six-model measurement was designed to provide information that evaluates individual perceptions in an organization. One of the models includes general attitudes with the subcategory job satisfaction.

Building upon the theoretical framework established by Hackman and Oldham (1976), Cammann et al. (1983) developed the MOAQ during a four-year period in which "Overall Job Satisfaction" was established "to provide an indication of the organization members' overall affective responses to their jobs" (p. 80). The three-question instrument is to be answered on a 7-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree; 7 = strongly agree), and includes "All in all, I am satisfied with my job;" "In general, I don't like my job" (reverse coding); and "In general, I like working here" (p. 84). Cammann et al. report an internal consistency reliability at .77.

Harrison (1994) said the MOAQ is "the most useful and comprehensive standardized instrument" in measuring individual performance and quality of work life issues (p. 71). The MOAQ's job satisfaction scale has been utilized to examine white-collar employees, including editors (Chen & Spector, 1992), state government employees (Carlson & Kacmar, 2000), state civil service employees from a university (Liu, Spector & Jex, 2005), non-faculty university employees (Jex & Gudanowski, 1992), traffic enforcement agents (Baruch-Feldman & Schwartz, 2002), and newspaper sports editors (Reinardy, 2007).

Herzberg et al.'s (1959) motivator-hygiene theory examines job satisfaction and dissatisfaction through separate lenses that include intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors, or motivators, include achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. Extrinsic, or hygiene factors, possibly resulting in job dissatisfaction include company policy and [End Page 28] administration, supervision, relationship with supervisor, work conditions, salary, relationships with peers, personal life, relationships with subordinates, status, and security. Herzberg (1968) writes, "The opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction but, rather, no job satisfaction; similarly, the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not job satisfaction, but no job dissatisfaction" (p. 56).

Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory rejects conventional notions that intrinsic elements (salary increase, an enjoyable supervisor or acceptable company policy) improve job satisfaction. The argument is that enjoyment of the work itself and recognition for a job well done primarily influence satisfaction.

Hackman (1980) contends that research involving job satisfaction and work motivation has been greatly influenced by the motivation-hygiene theory. It has been utilized to examine satisfaction among engineers and accountants (Herzberg, et al., 1959); non-academic university employees (Smerek & Peterson, 2007); elementary school teachers (Knoop, 1994); elementary school principles (Gaziel, 1986); and journalists (Shaver, 1978).

Using the motivational-hygiene theory, Shaver (1978) reported that of the 235 news-editorial and advertising graduates, five of the six satisfiers were attributed to job satisfaction, including "having the opportunity to grow professionally, feeling a sense of responsibility, engaging in stimulating and challenging work, successfully coping with tasks and problems, and receiving praise for work" (p. 58). Just as Herzberg had hypothesized, Shaver also said the hygiene factors contributed to job dissatisfaction, citing the hygiene "salary" as the one mentioned most often.

A few studies have examined job satisfaction among broadcasters, including the work of Becker, Sobowale and Cobbey (1979), who said, "Evaluation of organization, respect for boss, agreement with organization, value of work, and autonomy are positively linked to satisfaction" (p. 763). Other studies reported that satisfaction was high among program directors (Fish & Adams, 1985), it remained high during times of change (Daniels & Hollifield, 2002), but newspaper workers were more satisfied [End Page 29] and had longer careers than broadcasters (Pollard, 1994). Daniels and Hollifield's longitudinal study of organizational changes of CNN Headline News reported that newsroom employees perceived greater unhappiness with their jobs. The greatest unhappiness came with the changes the employees felt hindered them from producing high-quality journalism. According to Daniels and Hollifield, "While newsroom managers should expect staff to react to many proposed changes with dissatisfaction and resistance, they also can expect employees to adjust to most changes relatively quickly" (2002, p. 676).

Sportscasters are currently faced with smaller staffs, less airtime, and more competition while attempting to cover a large territory. Demands and support from the organization are certainly two issues that lend to job satisfaction, as well as personal issues and management's coverage commitments. And although sportscasters generally enjoy their work, at what point does that enjoyment begin to wane?

Measurements

Perceived Organizational Support

In an effort to measure the organizational commitment of workers, Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison and Sowa (1986) developed the perceived organizational support (POS) scale. Eisenberger et al. wanted to measure employees' individual dedication to their employers and the elements that influence dedication. The nine-question measurement is rated on a 7-point Likert-like scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree).

Work-Family Conflict

In reviewing 190 work-family studies, Eby, Casper, Lockwood, Bordeaux and Brinley (2005) reported that work-family conflict increases stress and reduces career satisfaction. With that understanding, [End Page 30] Netemeyer, Boles and McMurrian (1996) developed a short, valid WFC instrument. Netemeyer et al. (1996) defined WFC as, "A form of inter-role conflict in which the general demands of, time devoted to, and strain created by the job interfere with performing family-related responsibilities" (p. 401). The instrument is 10 statements to be answered using a 7-point Likert-like scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree).

Role Overload

Differentiating stressors of role overload and role conflict, Bacharach, Bamberger and Conley (1990) remodeled the role overload measurement developed by Beehr, Walsh and Taber (1976). Beehr et al. defined role overload as, "Having too much work to do in the time available" (p. 42). Bacharach et al. defined role overload as "the professional's perception that he or she is unable to complete assigned tasks effectively due to time limitations (i.e., the conflict between time and organizational demands concerning the quantity of work to be done" (p. 202). The three-statement instrument is answered using a 4-point Lik-ert-like scale (1 = definitely false; 4 = definitely true).

Job Demands

Karasek's (1979) seven-question job demand-control (JDC) measurement was designed to assess the effects of job stress on the physical health of workers. The scale specifically examines job demand (workload in terms of time pressure and role conflict) and job control (employees' ability to control his or her work activities). According to Karasek, "Psychological strain results not from a single aspect of the work environment, but from the joint effects of the demands of a work situation and the range of decision-making freedom (discretion) available to the worker facing those demands" (1979, p. 287). Karasek suggests that high levels of control act as a buffer against job dissatisfaction. The [End Page 31] questions are answered on a 5-point Likert-like scale (1 = never; 5 = extremely often).

In examining the motivators and hygiene factors that determine job satisfaction among TV sportscasters, this study will build upon previous work. The motivators include perceived organizational support (achievement) and management's commitment to local coverage (work itself), while role overload (working conditions), work-family conflict (factors in personal life) and job demands (working conditions) will be the hygiene factors. This study's research questions and hypotheses included:

  • RQ1. How will sportscasters' demographic characteristics correlate with overall job satisfaction, work-family conflict, role overload, social support, job demands and perceived organizational support?

  • RQ2. How will sportscasters rate on the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire (MOAQ) job satisfaction scale?

  • H1. Herzberg's motivators (perceived organizational support and management's commitment to local sports coverage) will be significant predictors of overall job satisfaction among sportscasters.

  • H2. Herzberg's hygienes (role overload, work-family conflict and job demands) will be significant predictors of overall job dissatisfaction among sportscasters.

  • H3. Sportscasters who rate lower in overall job satisfaction and the Herzberg's motivation factors are more likely to express intentions to leave sportscasting than those who rate high in job satisfaction and motivation factors.

Methodology

In an effort to locate television sports directors, anchors and reporters, e-mail addresses were selected from the Bacon's TV/ [End Page 32] Cable Directory (2008). The dataset included 1,310 sportscasters from 646 TV stations in all 50 states.

An online questionnaire was established using previously developed survey instruments. It included measurements for job satisfaction, perceived organizational support, work-family conflict, role overload, job demands, and management's commitment to local coverage. The 69-question survey featured six sections: Introduction, Job Relationship, Work & Family Life, Job Demands, Coverage and Your Background.

In November 2009, e-mail invitations explaining the study's purpose were sent to the 1,310 sportscasters. The e-mail also explained that the study was confidential, voluntary and respondents could refuse to answer any question. The e-mail included a SurveyMonkey link. The questionnaire was distributed twice during a two-week period With 330 inactive e-mail accounts, the sample size was reduced to 980.

Results

Of the remaining 981 sportscasters contacted, 288 responded to the survey for a response rate of 29.4%. Using mean substitution, missing values in the data set were replaced in less than 5% of a variable. The response rate is similar to previous online surveys (Reinardy, 2009; Asch, as cited in Schonlau, Fricker & Elliott, 2002; Jones & Pitt, 1999).

The sportscasters averaged 37.5 years old, had about 14 years of professional experience, were more than 93% Caucasian men, 59% were married, and 45.5% had children living at home. Market sizes of the TV stations ranged from No. 1 to 199, with the average DMA (Designated Market Area) or MSA (Metro Statistical Area) of 70. Those in this study averaged 51 hours of work a week, have about 3.3 minutes for the sports segment in each newscast, and were primarily anchors (69.7%).

Correlations were conducted to answer RQ1, which asks how sportscasters' demographic characteristics will relate to overall [End Page 33] job satisfaction, work-family conflict, role overload, job demands and perceived organizational support (see Table 1). Results indicate that job satisfaction had a small, positive and significant correlation to minutes dedicated to the sportscast each newscast (r = .21) and age (.14), but a small, negative correlation to the station's market size (-.14). Work-family conflict had small, negative and significant association with age (-.16), and role overload had a moderate, positive and significant correlation with hours worked per week (.30). Job demands had a small, positive and significant association with years of professional experience (.19), and a moderate, positive and significant correlation to work hours (.32). Additionally, organizational support had small, positive and significant correlations with years experience (.19) and age (.23), but a small, negative, significant association with not being married (-.17) and not having children living at home (-.15).

Table 1. Comparing job satisfaction levels among professions
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Table 1.

Comparing job satisfaction levels among professions

Other notable correlations include job satisfaction's negative relationships with work-family conflict (-.27), role overload (-.18), job demands (-.16), and positive correlation to organizational [End Page 34] support (.62) and management's commitment to local coverage (.25). Organizational support had negative associations with work-family conflict (-.36), role overload (-.23) and job demands (-.23). And, work-family conflict had positive correlations to role overload (.33) and job demands (.34)

RQ2 asked how sportscasters will rate on the MOAQ overall job satisfaction scale developed by Cammann, et al. (1983). The authors did not create a legend that determines high or low levels of job satisfaction based upon raw scores. However, in this study sportscasters had a mean score of 17.4 out of a possible 21. Sportscasters rated higher than newspaper journalists (15.7) (Reinardy, 2009), sports editors (16.2) (Reinardy, 2007), state government employees (16.1) (Carlson & Kacmar, 2000), state civil service employees (14.4) (Liu, Spector & Jex, 2005), and 400 employees from 16 different occupations (14.0) (Chen & Spector, 1992) (see Table 1).

Multiple regression analysis was utilized to examine H1, which states that sportscasters who report high levels of motivators (perceived organizational support and management's commitment to local sports coverage) will report high levels of overall job satisfaction. When job satisfaction was the dependent variable, perceived organizational support and management's commitment to local coverage accounted for about 37% of the variance (adjusted R2 = .369), F(2, 269) = 71.26, p < .001. Organizational support was a positive, significant predictor of job satisfaction [B = .617, t(269) = 11.01, p < .001], but management's commitment to local coverage was not. Therefore, H1 was only partially supported.

H2 states that Herzberg's hygienes (role overload, work-family conflict and job demands) will be significant predictors of overall job dissatisfaction among sportscasters. In this model, role overload, work-family conflict and job demands accounted for about 8% of the variance (adjusted R2 = .077), F(3, 268) = 7.79, p < .001. Work-family conflict was a negative, significant predictor of job satisfaction [B =-.260, t(268 =-3.95, p < .001], but role [End Page 35] overload and job demands were not significant predictors. H2 was partially supported.

To examine H3, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to determine if sportscasters who rate lower in overall job satisfaction and the Herzberg's motivation factors (perceived organizational support and management's commitment to local sports coverage) are more likely to express intentions to leave sportscasting compared to those who rate high in job satisfaction and motivation factors. Respondents were asked, "Do you have any intention of leaving sportscasting?" and could respond "yes," "no," or "don't know." Overall, 20.1% answered "yes" and 47.8% said "no." The ANOVA indicates significant differences between the "yes" and "no" groups in terms of the motivator organizational support, F(2, 216) = 12.68, p < .001. Those intending to leave sportscasting have a lower rate of support (M = 34.53; SD = 12.80) than those intending to stay (M = 44.70; SD = 11.58). There were also significant differences in sports coverage commitment between sportscasters intending to leave their jobs and those intending to stay, F(2, 216) = 3.31, p < .05. Those intending to leave indicated that station management were not as committed to local coverage (M = 23.64; SD = 7.12) compared to those intending to stay (M = 26.67; SD = 6.27). H3 was supported.

Discussion and Conclusions

The purpose of this study was to examine life issues that influence sportscasters' job satisfaction, including role overload, job demands, work-family conflict, organizational support and management's commitment to local coverage. The results indicate that sportscasters find great satisfaction in their jobs. In fact, compared to several other professions (newspaper sports editors, government employees and civil service employees), sportscasters have the highest degree of satisfaction as measured by Cammann et al.'s (1983) scale. That satisfaction comes in spite [End Page 36] of averaging 51-hour work weeks and being provided less than 3 ½ minutes of airtime for sports in each newscast. Some answers to the high degree of job satisfaction might be deduced from Herzberg motivator-hygiene theory. In this study, perceived organizational support and management's commitment to local sports coverage were consider extrinsic motivators and demonstrated to have some association to satisfaction. While commitment was correlated with satisfaction, organizational support was actually a predictor of it in the regression model.

Herzberg's hygienes, or intrinsic factors, in this study included work-family conflict, role overload and job demands. Only work-family conflict was a predictor of job dissatisfaction. Those intending to leave sportscasting, who thus had lower levels of satisfaction, perceived lower rates of organizational support than those intending to stay. Those intending to leave also indicated that their management did not have a strong commitment to local sports coverage.

In an attempt to determine what makes sportscasters so satisfied in their jobs, additional statistical analyses were conducted. However, there were no significant differences in market sizes (even split: large 1 to 61 vs. small 62-199), airtime allowed for sports (3 minutes and less vs. 3.1 minutes and more), or job titles (anchors vs. everyone else). And while older sportscasters had a slight edge in terms of satisfaction, experience did not appear to make a difference.

It is not unusual for those in broadcast to have high levels of satisfaction. Fish and Adams (1985) reported a great deal of satisfaction among program directors. They attributed the high satisfaction levels to a type of management style that fully involves employees in aspects of the managerial process, including decision-making, goal-setting and control. They observed, "Job satisfaction among these PDs is frequently associated with organizational style. On the leadership elements, the participative or the consultative styles were associated with the higher levels of [End Page 37] job satisfaction" (p. 19). Others studies have shown that work autonomy (Pollard, 1994; Weaver & Wilhoit, 1986; Weaver & Wilhoit, 1996; Weaver et al., 2007) results in high satisfaction as well.

Perhaps autonomy provides the answer to such sportscaster contentment. While in some professions receiving minimal assistance from other departments might be viewed as a hindrance, for sportscasters it could mean unadulterated freedom. With no assignment desk or producer, sportscasters are somewhat unimpeded by restrictions required of those on the news side. And while there are still stressors in doing the job, the enjoyment and autonomy of their work trumps those anxieties. Additionally, sportscasters indicated that management supports them in their work, particularly when there's a commitment to local coverage. This appeared to be an issue for those intending to leave the industry. In terms of satisfaction, for those intending to leave, organizational support and management's commitment to local sports coverage was absent. As support diminished, job satisfaction rose, which could ultimately result in more employee turnover. That would be an interesting area for future research. Additional research could also include further examination as to the cause of such high satisfaction levels. Interviews with sportscasters would certainly assist in developing those answers. The issue of work autonomy also needs to be examined more closely.

This study did have limitations, particularly with the research method. Some consider online surveys to be unpredictable because of the unknown nature of the respondent. While that may be true, the Web link was sent to specific e-mail addresses, which insures some access restrictions. Also, because the e-mails were extracted from the Bacon book, not all sportscasters were included in the study. Some television stations did not provide e-mail addresses of their sportscasters. And, finally, self-administered surveys have their own problems concerning honesty and accuracy in answers. [End Page 38]

For some, this study did not provide great revelations. Is it really surprising sportscasters enjoy their work? Probably not. However, if sportscasters are able to maintain a positive attitude during a time of layoffs, reduced airtime and some station's lack of general commitment to sports, what does that say for their resiliency? Or perhaps it isn't resiliency at all but the joy in still having a television sports job while others in the media face layoffs and job terminations. Another possible explanation is that with less newscast time allotted for sports, sportscasters actually have a reduced work load.

This study might not provide the "why" of high satisfaction rates but it does document the "what." In this case, the "what" tells us that being a sportscaster is still satisfying during incredibly uncertain times.

Scott Reinardy

Scott Reinardy, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the William Allen White School of Journalism and Mass Communications at the University of Kansas. He was a reporter and editor for 18 years at five different daily newspapers before earning his doctorate at the University of Missouri. His primary research interests include the examination of stress and burnout of journalists, organizational change in newspaper newsrooms, newsroom layoff survivors, ethical development of journalists, sports journalism, and experiential education of young journalists.

Jerry Crawford

Jerry Crawford is an assistant professor in the William Allen White School of Journalism and Mass Communication at University of Kansas, where he teaches multimedia reporting, producing and documentaries. He has more than 25 years of professional experience in broadcast management. Crawford has earned degrees at Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia State University and Howard University.

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Additional Information

ISSN
1940-5073
Print ISSN
1558-4313
Pages
23-42
Launched on MUSE
2011-10-05
Open Access
No
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