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632LANGUAGE, VOLUME 67, NUMBER 3 (1991) evenhanded in his criticisms: psychologists can hope for more help from linguistic theory than they have been able to get so far, but they should make sure that their experimental procedures are testing what they should. In sum, this collection of papers presents, both by literature review and by experimental example, the central issues in recent psycholinguistics. The major questions are there, as well as the current methodologies fashioned to address themes like modularity vs. interactionism. The answers often prompt more questions (how many modular divisions are there after all?), but what answers there are seem well founded on experimental results. This is a collection well worth perusing by linguists, whether or not they are experimentally oriented. There is much to be learned here and, more importantly, much to be pondered about what we must still do to achieve an accurate understanding of the relationship between linguistic structures and language processing. REFERENCES Anderson, Stephen R. 1989. Review article on P. N. Johnson-Laird, The computer and the mind. Lg. 65.800-11. Collins, Allan M., and Elizabeth F. Loftus. 1975. A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review 82.407-28. Johnson-Laird, Philip N. 1983. Mental models. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Miller, George A. 1990. Linguists, psychologists, and the cognitive sciences. Lg. 66.317-22. Department of Linguistics[Received 1 1 October 1990; University of Victoriarevision received 22 January 1991.] Victoria, British Columbia Canada V8W 2Y2 Double talk: Bilingualism and the politics of ethnicity in Catalonia. By Kathryn A. Woolard. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989. Pp. xiv, 183. $29.50. Reviewed by Jeanne Zang Mier, Gallaudet University Woolard's Double Talk is an ethnographic study of the uses of Catalan and Castilian1 in Barcelona. W thoroughly examines the underlying political and social factors and the resulting language values and attitudes that make Catalan very different from other minority languages, such as Welsh, Occitan, and Galician, which function as 'low languages' in a diglossic situation. W investigates the language use of two groups—native Catalan speakers and the im- ' In Spain the label Castilian is usually applied to any of the dialects of what outsiders normally refer to as Spanish (i.e., the term includes the Andalusian dialect as well as standard Castilian). To refer to the Castilian language as Spanish is not acceptable to many speakers of Spain's other languages (Catalan, Galician, Basque) because this implies that Castilian is the only language of Spain. REVIEWS633 migrant classes of Castilian speakers who have come primarily from the south of Spain to seek employment.2 The first issue that W considers is identity in Catalonia. She describes four popular criteria for determining Catalan identity: birthplace, descent, sentiment /behavior, and language. She found that the criterion of language was the overriding one, though it was not always explicitly expressed by her consultants . The immigrants often distinguished degrees of Catalan identity, classifying those born in Catalonia as Catalans and those who were native speakers of Catalan as 'Catalan Catalans'. In a section entitled 'Ethnic identity and the nation-state', W provides a very insightful analysis of the Catalan dilemma. Catalonia has been subordinate to the central Spanish government for most of the time since 1714, but it is also one of the most prosperous regions of Spain. On the one hand, the high economic status of Catalans has helped to maintain their language in the face of political repression; on the other hand, it has encouraged massive waves of immigrants from other parts of Spain to come to Catalonia to seek employment. Thus Castilian is a powerful symbol of the Spanish state's political control of Catalonia, and at the same time it is the language used by most of the economically depressed immigrant groups in Catalonia. The paradox is that political leaders who attempt to establish Catalonia as an autonomous region within Spain must place the Catalan language in opposition to Castilian; but when they try to establish unity within the boundaries of Catalonia, they must try to unite the Catalan-speaking natives with the Castilian-speaking immigrants . Next W investigates the issue of language choice. She makes the important point that, in...

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Additional Information

ISSN
1535-0665
Print ISSN
0097-8507
Pages
pp. 632-636
Launched on MUSE
2015-04-01
Open Access
No
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