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730 LANGUAGE, VOLUME 62, NUMBER 3 (1986) it is used to mean. Increasing mastery of single words brings a slow breakdown of the microfunctional system—i.e. the development of the ability to use certain words for several functions , and the reorganization along the much broader 'macrofunctional' division of pragmatics (getting things done through language) vs. mathetics (coming to understand the world by labeling, classifying etc.) Finally, this system too starts to break down as the child develops multiple-word, syntactically organized utterances , and begins to use language to give others information about events. P keeps a steady focus on the gradualness of these transitions— presenting persuasive evidence that they start with particular parts of the child's system, and then spread to others. This book is rich in closely observed, insightfully discussed examples, many of which bear on current claims in the literature. Researchers studying the early stages ofdevelopment ofsyntax , semantics, pragmatics, and/or the relation of these to cognitive development—regardless of their degree of familiarity with the terminology and formalism—should find this book very useful. [Lise Menn, University of Colorado.] Transfer and interference in language: A selected bibliography. Compiled by Hans W. Dechert, Monika Brüggemeier, and Dietmar FütTERER . (Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science , V: Library and information sources in linguistics, 14.) Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins, 1984. Pp. xiii, 488. $50.00. Approximately 2400 titles of publications in the area of language transfer and interference are included here, drawn from what the compilers refer to as 'the standard bibliographies' (titles provided), from reference lists, and from 52 'special bibliographies' (titles also provided). The compilation covers a period from the 1930's to 1983, but the vast majority of titles are concentrated in the period 1970-79. The list is not meant to be exhaustive; and although it attempts to cover a wide range of academic disciplines and languages, the compilers have focused mainly on 'the psycholinguistics of language contact and interaction'. English is inevitably over-represented. Nonetheless, 102 languages or language groupings are included; titles are divided into the three main areas of psycholinguistics , sociolinguistics, and applied linguistics (with smaller sections on linguistics and psychology proper, neurolinguistics, and 'pragmalinguistics '). The three main areas are further topically subdivided. A brief preface—introducing the goal and background ofthe book, and titles ofthe 'special bibliographies'—is followed by an alphabetical list of titles. Subsequent sections include a language index with authors and dates of publications arranged by language or language group in alphabetical order, and a topic index with similar format. Some languages are subdivided (e.g., English, English 1, English 2, English 3), for reasons that were not clear. While this is clearly a useful bibliographical source for any student or researcher working in the area of language transfer and interference, it is precisely what its compilers say: a selected bibliography. This is not problematic in areas where the compilers have made clear the basis of selection; but it may be problematic in areas where the most recent titles given are from the early 1970's, since researchers cited are still producing pertinent and valuable work. [Monica Heller, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.] Impromptu speech: A symposium. Ed. by Nils Erik Enkvist. (Publications of the Research Institute ofthe Abo Akademi Foundation, 78.) Âbo, Finland: Âbo Akademi, 1982. Pp. 383. This volume consists of 24 papers given at a conference in 1981: N. E. Enkvist, 'Impromptu speech, structure, and process', (11-31); J. Lehtonen, 'Non-verbal aspects of impromptu speech' (33-45); E. Roulet, 'Échanges, interventions et actes de langage dans la structure de la conversation' (47-70); C. Faerch & G. Kasper, 'Phatic, metalingual and metacommunicative functions in discourse: gambits and repairs' (71-103); B. Loman, 'The segmentation problem in the study of impromptu speech' (105-29); J. Svartvik, 'The segmentation ofimpromptu speech' (131-45); J.-O. Östman, 'The symbiotic relationship between pragmatic particles and impromptu speech' (147-77); I. EvenZohar , 'The emergence of speech organisers in a renovated language: The case of Hebrew void ...


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